United States Code
USC most recently checked for updates: Feb 03, 2023
If sufficient actuarial data are available (as determined by the Corporation), the Corporation may insure, or provide reinsurance for insurers of, producers of agricultural commodities grown in the United States under 1 or more plans of insurance determined by the Corporation to be adapted to the agricultural commodity concerned. To qualify for coverage under a plan of insurance, the losses of the insured commodity must be due to drought, flood, or other natural disaster (as determined by the Secretary).
Except in the cases of tobacco, potatoes, sweet potatoes, and hemp, insurance shall not extend beyond the period during which the insured commodity is in the field. As used in the preceding sentence, in the case of an aquacultural species, the term “field” means the environment in which the commodity is produced.
A producer shall have the right to a review of a determination regarding good farming practices made under subparagraph (A)(iii) in accordance with an informal administrative process to be established by the Corporation.
Except as provided in clause (i), the determination may not be reversed or modified as the result of a subsequent administrative review.
A producer shall have the right to judicial review of the determination without exhausting any right to a review under clause (i).
The determination may not be reversed or modified as the result of judicial review unless the determination is found to be arbitrary or capricious.
No policy or plan of insurance provided under this subchapter (including a policy or plan of insurance approved by the Board under subsection (h)) shall cover losses due to a reduction in revenue for potatoes except as covered under a whole farm policy or plan of insurance, as determined by the Corporation.
The Corporation may offer plans of insurance or reinsurance for production of agricultural commodities in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, and the Republic of Palau in the same manner as provided in this section for production of agricultural commodities in the United States.
In an area in the United States or specified in subparagraph (A) where crop insurance is not available for a particular agricultural commodity, the Corporation may offer to enter into a written agreement with an individual producer operating in the area for insurance coverage under this subchapter if the producer has actuarially sound data relating to the production by the producer of the commodity or similar commodities and the data is acceptable to the Corporation.
The Corporation shall make the information described in subparagraph (A) available electronically to producers and approved insurance providers.
To the maximum extent practicable, the Corporation shall allow producers and approved insurance providers to use electronic methods to submit information required by the Corporation.
Not later than 1 year after
The term “adequately served” means having a participation rate, by crop, that is at least 50 percent of the national average participation rate.
Using resources and information available to the Board or the Secretary, the Board shall review the policies and plans of insurance that are offered by approved insurance providers under this subchapter, including policies and plans of insurance for underserved producers, to determine if each State is adequately served by the policies and plans of insurance.
Not later than 30 days after completion of the review under subparagraph (B), and not less frequently than once every 3 years thereafter, the Board shall make publicly available and submit to the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate a report describing the results of the review.
The report under clause (i) shall include recommendations to increase participation in States and among underserved producers that are not adequately served by the policies and plans of insurance, including any plans for administrative action or recommendations for Congressional action.
Notwithstanding any other provision of this subchapter, beginning with the 2001 crops of upland cotton, extra long staple cotton, and rice, the Corporation shall offer plans of insurance, including prevented planting coverage and replanting coverage, under this subchapter that cover losses of upland cotton, extra long staple cotton, and rice resulting from failure of irrigation water supplies due to drought and saltwater intrusion.
Except as provided in subparagraph (B), no person shall pay, allow, or give, or offer to pay, allow, or give, directly or indirectly, either as an inducement to procure insurance or after insurance has been procured, any rebate, discount, abatement, credit, or reduction of the premium named in an insurance policy or any other valuable consideration or inducement not specified in the policy.
Subject to clause (ii), the Corporation shall publish in a timely manner on the website of the Risk Management Agency information regarding each violation of this paragraph, including any sanctions imposed in response to the violation, in sufficient detail so that the information may serve as effective guidance to approved insurance providers, agents, and producers.
In providing information under clause (i) regarding violations of this paragraph, the Corporation shall redact the identity of the persons and entities committing the violations in order to protect the privacy of those persons and entities.
In this paragraph, the term “immediate family” means an individual’s father, mother, stepfather, stepmother, brother, sister, stepbrother, stepsister, son, daughter, stepson, stepdaughter, grandparent, grandson, granddaughter, father-in-law, mother-in-law, brother-in-law, sister-in-law, son-in-law, daughter-in-law, the spouse of the foregoing, and the individual’s spouse.
Not later than 90 days after the annual settlement date of the reinsurance year, any individual that received directly or indirectly any compensation for the service or sale of any policy or plan of insurance offered under this subchapter in the prior reinsurance year shall certify to applicable approved insurance providers that the compensation that the individual received was in compliance with this paragraph.
The procedural requirements and sanctions prescribed in section 1515(h) of this title shall apply to the prosecution of a violation of this paragraph.
Sanctions for violations under this paragraph shall only apply to the individuals or entities directly responsible for the certification required under subparagraph (C) or the failure to comply with the requirements of this paragraph.
No sanctions shall apply with respect to the policy or plans of insurance upon which compensation is received, including the reinsurance for those policies or plans.
The voluntary practice of cover cropping shall be considered a good farming practice under paragraph (3)(A)(iii) if the cover crop is terminated in accordance with subparagraph (B).
Cover crop termination shall not affect the insurability of a subsequently planted insurable crop if the cover crop is terminated in accordance with subparagraph (B).
In a county in which summer fallow is an insurable practice, a cover crop in that county that is terminated in accordance with subparagraph (B) shall be considered as summer fallow for the purpose of insurability.
The Corporation shall offer a catastrophic risk protection plan to indemnify producers for crop loss due to loss of yield or prevented planting, if provided by the Corporation, when the producer is unable, because of drought, flood, or other natural disaster (as determined by the Secretary), to plant other crops for harvest on the acreage for the crop year.
The amount paid to a producer on a claim under catastrophic risk protection may reflect a reduction that is proportional to the out-of-pocket expenses that are not incurred by the producer as a result of not planting, growing, or harvesting the crop for which the claim is made, as determined by the Corporation.
For purposes of considering need under subparagraph (A)(ii), the Secretary may take into account the most efficient and cost-effective use of resources, the availability of personnel, fairness to local producers, the needs and convenience of local producers, and the availability of private insurance carriers.
In full consultation with approved insurance providers, the Secretary may continue to offer catastrophic risk protection in a State (or a portion of a State) through local offices of the Department if the Secretary determines that there is an insufficient number of approved insurance providers operating in the State or portion of the State to adequately provide catastrophic risk protection coverage to producers.
To the extent that catastrophic risk protection coverage by approved insurance providers is sufficiently available in a State (or a portion of a State) as determined by the Secretary, only approved insurance providers may provide the coverage in the State or portion of the State.
Not later than 90 days after
This clause shall take effect beginning with the 1997 crop year. Subject to clause (ii) all catastrophic risk protection policies written by local offices of the Department shall be transferred to the approved insurance provider for performance of all sales, service, and loss adjustment functions. Any fees in connection with such policies that are not yet collected at the time of the transfer shall be payable to the approved insurance providers assuming the policies. The transfer process for policies for the 1997 crop year with sales closing dates before
Each producer shall pay an administrative fee for catastrophic risk protection in the amount of $655 per crop per county.
If State law permits a licensing fee to be paid by an insurance provider to a cooperative association or trade association and rebated to a producer through the payment of catastrophic risk protection administrative fees, a cooperative association or trade association located in that State may pay, on behalf of a member of the association in that State or a contiguous State who consents to be insured under such an arrangement, all or a portion of the administrative fee required by this paragraph for catastrophic risk protection.
Nothing in this subparagraph limits the option of a producer to select the licensed insurance agent or other approved insurance provider from whom the producer will purchase a policy or plan of insurance or to refuse coverage for which a payment is offered to be made under clause (i).
Catastrophic risk protection coverage for which a payment is made under clause (i) shall be delivered by a licensed insurance agent or other approved insurance provider.
A cooperative association or trade association, and any approved insurance provider with whom a licensing fee is made, shall encourage producer members to purchase appropriate levels of coverage in order to meet the risk management needs of the member producers.
The administrative fee required by this paragraph shall be paid by the producer on the same date on which the premium for a policy of additional coverage would be paid by the producer.
The amounts paid under this paragraph shall be deposited in the crop insurance fund established under section 1516(c) of this title, to be available for the programs and activities of the Corporation.
No funds deposited in the crop insurance fund under this subparagraph may be used to compensate an approved insurance provider or agent for the delivery of services under this subsection.
The Corporation shall waive the amounts required under this paragraph for limited resource farmers and beginning farmers or ranchers, as defined by the Corporation, and veteran farmers or ranchers.
The Corporation shall coordinate with other agencies of the Department that provide programs or services to farmers and ranchers described in clause (i) to make available coverage under the waiver under that clause and to share eligibility information to reduce paperwork and avoid duplication.
A producer may obtain catastrophic risk coverage for a crop of the producer on land in the county only if the producer obtains the coverage for the crop on all insurable land of the producer in the county.
The Corporation may limit catastrophic risk coverage in any county or area, or on any farm, on the basis of the insurance risk concerned.
Effective only for a 1995 crop planted or for which insurance attached prior to
In developing and carrying out the policies and procedures for a catastrophic risk protection plan under this subchapter, the Corporation shall, to the maximum extent practicable, minimize the paperwork required and the complexity and costs of procedures governing applications for, processing, and servicing of the plan for all parties involved.
To the extent that the policies and procedures developed under subparagraph (A) may be applied to other plans of insurance offered under this subchapter without jeopardizing the actuarial soundness or integrity of the crop insurance program, the Corporation shall apply the policies and procedures to the other plans of insurance within a reasonable period of time (as determined by the Corporation) after the effective date of this paragraph.
The rate for reimbursing an approved insurance provider or agent for expenses incurred by the approved insurance provider or agent for loss adjustment in connection with a policy of catastrophic risk protection shall not exceed 6 percent of the premium for catastrophic risk protection that is used to define loss ratio.
The Corporation shall offer to producers of agricultural commodities grown in the United States plans of crop insurance that provide additional coverage.
To be eligible for additional coverage, a producer must apply to an approved insurance provider for purchase of additional coverage if the coverage is available from an approved insurance provider. If additional coverage is unavailable privately, the Corporation may offer additional coverage plans of insurance directly to producers.
If a producer has already applied for catastrophic risk protection at the local office of the Department and elects to purchase additional coverage, the relevant information for the crop of the producer shall be transferred to the approved insurance provider servicing the additional coverage crop policy.
The Corporation shall provide producers with information on catastrophic risk and additional coverage in terms of dollar coverage (within the allowable limits of coverage provided in this paragraph).
Coverage offered under paragraph (3)(B) and clause (i) shall be triggered only if the losses in the area exceed 14 percent of normal levels (as determined by the Corporation).
For the purposes of this subchapter, the Corporation shall establish or approve the price level (referred to in this subchapter as the “expected market price”) of each agricultural commodity for which insurance is offered.
Except as otherwise provided in subparagraph (C), the expected market price of an agricultural commodity shall be not less than the projected market price of the agricultural commodity, as determined by the Corporation.
Not later than 120 days after the date of enactment of this subparagraph, the Corporation shall contract individually with 5 expert reviewers described in subclause (II) to develop and recommend a methodology for determining an expected market price for sorghum for both the production and revenue-based plans of insurance to more accurately reflect the actual price at harvest.
Not later than 90 days after the date of contracting with the expert reviewers under clause (ii), the expert reviewers shall submit, and the Corporation shall make available to the public, the recommendations of the expert reviewers.
The Corporation shall consider the recommendations under subclause (I) when determining the appropriate pricing methodology to determine the expected market price for grain sorghum under both the production and revenue-based plans of insurance.
Not later than 60 days after the date on which the Corporation receives the recommendations of the expert reviewers, the Corporation shall publish the proposed pricing methodology for both the production and revenue-based plans of insurance for notice and comment and, during the comment period, conduct at least 1 public meeting to discuss the proposed pricing methodologies.
Not later than 180 days after the close of the comment period in clause (iii)(III), but effective not later than the 2010 crop year, the Corporation shall implement a pricing methodology for grain sorghum under the production and revenue-based plans of insurance that is transparent and replicable.
Until the date on which the new pricing methodology is implemented, the Corporation may continue to use the pricing methodology that the Corporation determines best establishes the expected market price.
On an annual basis, the Corporation shall make available the pricing methodology and data used to determine the expected market prices for grain sorghum under the production and revenue-based plans of insurance, including any changes to the methodology used to determine the expected market prices for grain sorghum from the previous year.
Subject to subparagraph (B), insurance coverage shall be made available to a producer on the basis of any price election that equals or is less than the price election established by the Corporation. The coverage shall be quoted in terms of dollars per acre.
The Corporation may establish minimum price elections below which levels of insurance shall not be offered.
The Corporation shall, as the Corporation determines practicable, offer producers different price elections for classes of wheat and malting barley (including contract prices in the case of malting barley), in addition to the standard price election, that reflect different market prices, as determined by the Corporation. The Corporation shall, as the Corporation determines practicable, offer additional coverage for each class determined under this subparagraph and charge a premium for each class that is actuarially sound.
As soon as possible, but not later than the 2015 reinsurance year, the Corporation shall offer producers of organic crops price elections for all organic crops produced in compliance with standards issued by the Department of Agriculture under the national organic program established under the Organic Foods Production Act of 1990 (7 U.S.C. 6501 et seq.) that reflect the actual retail or wholesale prices, as appropriate, received by producers for organic crops, as determined by the Secretary using all relevant sources of information.
For levels of additional coverage equal to 65 percent or more of the recorded or appraised average yield indemnified at 100 percent of the expected market price, or an equivalent coverage, a producer may elect to delete from the additional coverage any coverage against damage caused by fire and hail if the producer obtains an equivalent or greater dollar amount of coverage for damage caused by fire and hail from an approved insurance provider. On written notice of the election to the company issuing the policy providing additional coverage and submission of evidence of substitute coverage on the commodity insured, the premium of the producer shall be reduced by an amount determined by the Corporation to be actuarially appropriate, taking into account the actuarial value of the remaining coverage provided by the Corporation. In no event shall the producer be given credit for an amount of premium determined to be greater than the actuarial value of the protection against losses caused by fire and hail that is included in the additional coverage for the crop.
The Corporation may enter into an agreement with any State or agency of a State under which the State or agency may pay to the approved insurance provider an additional premium subsidy to further reduce the portion of the premium paid by producers in the State.
The Board may limit the availability of additional coverage under this subsection in any county or area, or on any farm, on the basis of the insurance risk involved. The Board shall not offer additional coverage equal to less than 50 percent of the recorded or appraised average yield indemnified at 100 percent of the expected market price, or an equivalent coverage.
If a producer elects to purchase coverage for a crop at a level in excess of catastrophic risk protection, the producer shall pay an administrative fee for the additional coverage of $30 per crop per county.
Subparagraphs (D) and (E) of subsection (b)(5) shall apply with respect to the collection and use of administrative fees under this paragraph.
Subsection (b)(5)(C) shall apply with respect to the collection date for the administrative fee.
The Corporation may provide a performance-based premium discount for a producer of an agricultural commodity who has good insurance or production experience relative to other producers of that agricultural commodity in the same area, as determined by the Corporation.
Effective beginning with the 2012 reinsurance year, the Corporation shall establish August 15 as the billing date for premiums.
For the purpose of encouraging the broadest possible participation of producers in the catastrophic risk protection provided under subsection (b) and the additional coverage provided under subsection (c), the Corporation shall pay a part of the premium in the amounts provided in accordance with this subsection.
Notwithstanding paragraph (2), during each of the 2001 and subsequent reinsurance years, additional coverage under subsection (c) shall be available only in 5 percent increments beginning at 50 percent of the recorded or appraised average yield.
Each policy or plan of insurance under this subchapter shall prominently indicate the dollar amount of the portion of the premium paid by the Corporation.
The Corporation may pay a portion of the premiums for plans or policies of insurance for which the insurable unit is defined on a whole farm or enterprise unit basis that is higher than would otherwise be paid in accordance with paragraph (2).
The percentage of the premium paid by the Corporation to a policyholder for a policy with an enterprise or whole farm unit under this paragraph shall, to the maximum extent practicable, provide the same dollar amount of premium subsidy per acre that would otherwise have been paid by the Corporation under paragraph (2) if the policyholder had purchased a basic or optional unit for the crop for the crop year.
The amount of the premium paid by the Corporation under this paragraph may not exceed 80 percent of the total premium for the enterprise or whole farm unit policy.
Beginning with the 2015 crop year, the Corporation shall make available separate enterprise units for irrigated and nonirrigated acreage of crops in counties.
Notwithstanding any other provision of this subsection regarding payment of a portion of premiums, a beginning farmer or rancher or veteran farmer or rancher shall receive premium assistance that is 10 percentage points greater than premium assistance that would otherwise be available under paragraphs (2) (except for subparagraph (A) of that paragraph), (5), (6), and (7) for the applicable policy, plan of insurance, and coverage level selected by the beginning farmer or rancher or veteran farmer or rancher.
To participate in catastrophic risk protection coverage under this section, a producer shall submit an application at the local office of the Department or to an approved insurance provider.
For coverage under this subchapter, each producer shall purchase crop insurance on or before the sales closing date for the crop by providing the required information and executing the required documents. Subject to the goal of ensuring actuarial soundness for the crop insurance program, the sales closing date shall be established by the Corporation to maximize convenience to producers in obtaining benefits under price and production adjustment programs of the Department.
Except as provided in subparagraph (C), the Corporation shall establish, for an insurance policy for each insurable crop that is planted in the spring, a sales closing date that is 30 days earlier than the corresponding sales closing date that was established for the 1994 crop year.
If compliance with subparagraph (B) results in a sales closing date for an agricultural commodity that is earlier than January 31, the sales closing date for that commodity shall be January 31 beginning with the 2000 crop year.
Subject to paragraph (2), the Corporation shall establish crop insurance underwriting rules that ensure that yield coverage, as specified in this subsection, is provided to eligible producers obtaining catastrophic risk protection under subsection (b) or additional coverage under subsection (c).
Subject to subparagraph (B) and paragraph (4)(C), the yield for a crop shall be based on the actual production history for the crop, if the crop was produced on the farm without penalty during each of the 4 crop years immediately preceding the crop year for which actual production history is being established, building up to a production data base for each of the 10 consecutive crop years preceding the crop year for which actual production history is being established.
The Corporation may offer a crop insurance plan based on an area yield that allows an insured producer to qualify for an indemnity if a loss has occurred in an area (as specified by the Corporation) in which the farm of the producer is located. Under an area yield plan, an insured producer shall be allowed to select the level of area production at which an indemnity will be paid consistent with such terms and conditions as are established by the Corporation.
A producer may choose between individual yield or area yield coverage or combined coverage, if available, on a commodity-by-commodity basis.
The authority provided by this paragraph shall terminate on the date that is 3 years after the effective date of this paragraph.
This paragraph shall apply whenever the Corporation uses the actual production records of the producer to establish the producer’s actual production history for an agricultural commodity for any of the 2001 and subsequent crop years.
Notwithstanding paragraph (2), with respect to 1 or more of the crop years used to establish the actual production history of an agricultural commodity of the producer, the producer may elect to exclude any recorded or appraised yield for any crop year in which the per planted acre yield of the agricultural commodity in the county of the producer was at least 50 percent below the simple average of the per planted acre yield of the agricultural commodity in the county during the previous 10 consecutive crop years.
In any crop year that a producer in a county is eligible to make an election to exclude a yield under clause (i), a producer in a contiguous county is eligible to make such an election.
For purposes of determining whether the per planted acre yield of the agricultural commodity in the county of the producer was at least 50 percent below the simple average of the per planted acre yield of the agricultural commodity in the county during the previous 10 consecutive crop years, the Corporation shall make a separate determination for irrigated and nonirrigated acreage.
In the case of a producer that makes an election under subparagraph (B) or (C), the Corporation shall adjust the premium to reflect the risk associated with the adjustment made in the actual production history of the producer.
The amount by which the Corporation adjusts the actual production history of a producer of an agricultural commodity shall reflect the degree to which the success of the systematic, area-wide efforts described in subparagraph (A), on average, increases the yield of the commodity on the producer’s farm, as determined by the Corporation.
Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to require a change in the administration of any provision of this subchapter as the subchapter was administered for the 2018 reinsurance year.
The Corporation may waive the viability and marketability requirement under clause (i)(I) in the case of a policy or pilot program relating to the production of hemp.
A policy or other material submitted to the Board under this subsection may be prepared without regard to the limitations contained in this subchapter, including the requirements concerning the levels of coverage and rates and the requirement that a price level for each commodity insured must equal the expected market price for the commodity as established by the Board.
A proposal submitted to the Board under this subsection (including any information generated from the proposal) shall be considered to be confidential commercial or financial information for the purposes of section 552(b)(4) of title 5.
If information concerning a proposal could be withheld by the Secretary under the standard for privileged or confidential information pertaining to trade secrets and commercial or financial information under section 552(b)(4) of title 5, the information shall not be released to the public.
This subparagraph shall apply with respect to a proposal only during the period preceding any approval of the proposal by the Board.
The Board shall provide an applicant with the opportunity to present the proposal to the Board in person if the applicant so desires.
The Board shall provide an applicant with notification of intent to disapprove a proposal not later than 30 days prior to making the disapproval.
An applicant that receives the notification may modify the application, and such application, as modified, shall be considered by the Board in the manner provided in subparagraph (D) within the 30-day period beginning on the date the modified application is submitted.
Clause (i) shall not apply to the Board’s consideration of the modified application.
Any notification of intent to disapprove a policy or other material submitted under this subsection shall be accompanied by a complete explanation as to the reasons for the Board’s intention to deny approval.
Not later than 120 days after a policy or other material is submitted under this subsection, the Board shall make a determination to approve or disapprove the policy or material.
Any determination by the Board to disapprove any policy or other material shall be accompanied by a complete explanation of the reasons for the Board’s decision to deny approval.
Notwithstanding any other provision of this subchapter, if the Board fails to make a determination within the prescribed time period, the submitted policy or other material shall be deemed approved by the Board for the initial reinsurance year designated for the policy or material, unless the Board and the applicant agree to an extension.
As part of the feasibility and research associated with the development of a policy or other material for fruits and vegetables, tree nuts, dried fruits, and horticulture and nursery crops (including floriculture), the submitter prior to making a submission under this subsection shall consult with groups representing producers of those agricultural commodities in all major producing areas for the commodities to be served or potentially impacted, either directly or indirectly.
Any submission made to the Board under this subsection shall contain a summary and analysis of the feasibility and research findings from the impacted groups described in clause (i), including a summary assessment of the support for or against development of the policy and an assessment on the impact of the proposed policy to the general marketing and production of the crop from both a regional and national perspective.
In evaluating whether the interests of producers are adequately protected pursuant to paragraph (3) with respect to a submission made under this subsection, the Board shall review the information provided pursuant to clause (ii) to determine if the submission will create adverse market distortions with respect to the production of commodities that are the subject of the submission.
Effective only during the 2001 reinsurance year, in the case of a policy or plan of insurance developed and approved under this subsection or section 1522 of this title, or conducted under section 1523 of this title (other than a policy or plan of insurance applicable to livestock), and first approved by the Board after
Beginning with the 1995 crop year, the Corporation shall offer to producers additional prevented planting coverage that insures producers against losses in accordance with this paragraph.
Additional prevented planting coverage shall be offered by the Corporation through approved insurance providers.
The Corporation shall adopt, as soon as practicable, rates and coverages that will improve the actuarial soundness of the insurance operations of the Corporation for those crops that are determined to be insured at rates that are not actuarially sound, except that no rate may be increased by an amount of more than 20 percent over the comparable rate of the preceding crop year.
To maximize participation in the Federal crop insurance program and to ensure equity for producers, the Corporation shall periodically review the methodologies employed for rating plans of insurance under this subchapter consistent with section 1507(c)(2) of this title.
The Corporation shall analyze the rating and loss history of approved policies and plans of insurance for agricultural commodities by area.
If the Corporation makes a determination that premium rates are excessive for an agricultural commodity in an area relative to the requirements of subsection (d)(2) for that area, then, for the 2002 crop year (and as necessary thereafter), the Corporation shall make appropriate adjustments in the premium rates for that area for that agricultural commodity.
Under rules prescribed by the Corporation, the Corporation may provide for adjustment and payment of claims for losses. The rules prescribed by the Corporation shall establish standards to ensure that all claims for losses are adjusted, to the extent practicable, in a uniform and timely manner.
Subject to subparagraph (B), if a claim for indemnity is denied by the Corporation or an approved provider on behalf of the Corporation, an action on the claim may be brought against the Corporation or Secretary only in the United States district court for the district in which the insured farm is located.
A suit on the claim may be brought not later than 1 year after the date on which final notice of denial of the claim is provided to the claimant.
The Corporation shall provide approved insurance providers with indemnification, including costs and reasonable attorney fees incurred by the approved insurance provider, due to errors or omissions on the part of the Corporation.
The Corporation shall consider marketing windows in determining whether it is feasible to require planting during a crop year.
Notwithstanding any other provision of this subchapter, the Corporation shall, to the maximum extent practicable, provide reinsurance to insurers approved by the Corporation that insure producers of any agricultural commodity under 1 or more plans acceptable to the Corporation.
The reinsurance shall be provided on such terms and conditions as the Board may determine to be consistent with subsections (b) and (c) and sound reinsurance principles.
The reinsurance agreements of the Corporation with the reinsured companies shall require the reinsured companies to bear a sufficient share of any potential loss under the agreement so as to ensure that the reinsured company will sell and service policies of insurance in a sound and prudent manner, taking into consideration the financial condition of the reinsured companies and the availability of private reinsurance.
A policy of additional coverage that received a rate of reimbursement for administrative and operating costs for the 1998 reinsurance year that is lower than the rate specified in subparagraph (A)(i) shall receive a reduction in the rate of reimbursement that is proportional to the reduction in the rate of reimbursement between clauses (i) and (ii) of subparagraph (A).
Beginning with the 2002 reinsurance year, in the case of a policy or plan of insurance approved by the Board that was not reinsured during the 1998 reinsurance year but, had it been reinsured, would have received a reduced rate of reimbursement during the 1998 reinsurance year, the rate of reimbursement for administrative and operating costs established for the policy or plan of insurance shall take into account the factors used to determine the rate of reimbursement for administrative and operating costs during the 1998 reinsurance year, including the expected difference in premium and actual administrative and operating costs of the policy or plan of insurance relative to an individual yield policy or plan of insurance and other appropriate factors, as determined by the Corporation.
Effective beginning with the 2012 reinsurance year, the Corporation shall reimburse approved insurance providers and agents for the allowable administrative and operating costs of the providers and agents as soon as practicable after October 1 (but not later than October 31) after the reinsurance year for which reimbursements are earned.
In the case of a policy of additional coverage that received a rate of reimbursement for administrative and operating costs for the 2008 reinsurance year, for each of the 2009 and subsequent reinsurance years, the reimbursement rate for administrative and operating costs shall be 2.3 percentage points below the rates in effect as of the date of enactment of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 for all crop insurance policies used to define loss ratio, except that only ½ of the reduction shall apply in a reinsurance year to the total premium written in a State in which the State loss ratio is greater than 1.2.
Notwithstanding subparagraphs (A) through (E), for each of the 2009 and subsequent reinsurance years, the reimbursement rate for area policies and plans of insurance widely available as of the date of enactment of this subparagraph or authorized under subsection (c)(4)(C) or section 1508b of this title shall be 12 percent of the premium used to define loss ratio for that reinsurance year.
Consistent with section 118 of the Federal Crop Insurance Reform Act of 1994, and consistent with maintenance of program integrity, prevention of fraud and abuse, the need for program expansion, and improvement of quality of service to customers, the Board shall alter program procedures and administrative requirements in order to reduce the administrative and operating costs of approved insurance providers and agents in an amount that corresponds to any reduction in the reimbursement rate required under paragraph (4) during the 5-year period beginning on
The determination of whether the Corporation is achieving, or has achieved, corresponding administrative cost savings shall not be subject to administrative review, and is wholly committed to agency discretion within the meaning of section 701(a)(2) of title 5.
The Corporation shall submit to Congress a plan outlining the measures that will be used to achieve the reduction required under paragraph (5). If the Corporation can identify additional cost reduction measures, the Corporation shall describe the measures in the plan.
Subject to clause (ii), subparagraph (A) shall not apply in any case in which the approved insurance providers, as a whole, experience unexpected adverse circumstances, as determined by the Secretary.
If Federal law is enacted after the date of enactment of this paragraph that requires revisions in the financial terms of the Standard Reinsurance Agreement, and changes in the Agreement are made on a mandatory basis by the Corporation, the changes shall not be considered to be a renegotiation of the Agreement for purposes of subparagraph (A).
If the Corporation renegotiates a Standard Reinsurance Agreement under subparagraph (A)(ii), the Corporation shall notify the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate of the renegotiation.
The approved insurance providers may confer with each other and collectively with the Corporation during any renegotiation under subparagraph (A).
As part of the Standard Reinsurance Agreement renegotiation authorized under subparagraph (A)(i), the Corporation shall consider alternative methods to determine reimbursement rates for administrative and operating costs.
To the extent that any budget savings are realized in the renegotiation of a Standard Reinsurance Agreement under subparagraph (A)(ii), and the savings are determined not to be a significant departure from budget neutrality under clause (i), the savings shall be used to increase reimbursements or payments described under paragraphs (4) and (9).
The Corporation may offer specific risk protection programs, including protection against prevented planting, wildlife depredation, tree damage and disease, and insect infestation, under such terms and conditions as the Board may determine, except that no program may be undertaken if insurance for the specific risk involved is generally available from private companies.
If a policy or plan of insurance offered under this subchapter includes quality loss adjustment coverage, the coverage shall provide for a reduction in the quantity of production of the agricultural commodity considered produced during a crop year, or a similar adjustment, as a result of the agricultural commodity not meeting the quality standards established in the policy or plan of insurance.
Under this paragraph, the Corporation shall set the quality standards below which quality losses will be paid based on the variability of the grade of the agricultural commodity from the base quality for the agricultural commodity.
The Corporation shall contract with a qualified person to review the quality loss adjustment procedures of the Corporation so that the procedures more accurately reflect local quality discounts that are applied to agricultural commodities insured under this subchapter.
Effective beginning not later than the 2004 reinsurance year, based on the review, the Corporation shall make adjustments in the procedures, taking into consideration the actuarial soundness of the adjustment and the prevention of fraud, waste, and abuse.
The Corporation shall promulgate special provisions under this subsection specific to malting barley, taking into consideration any changes in quality factors, as required by applicable market conditions.
The Corporation shall establish procedures to allow insured producers not more than 120 days to settle claims, in accordance with procedures established by the Secretary, involving corn that is determined to have low test weight.
As soon as practicable after
The authority provided by this paragraph terminates effective on the date that is 5 years after the date on which subparagraph (A) is implemented.
Except as provided in paragraph (2), if a producer who is eligible to receive benefits under catastrophic risk protection under subsection (b) is also eligible to receive assistance for the same loss under any other program administered by the Secretary, the producer shall be required to elect whether to receive benefits under this subchapter or under the other program, but not both. A producer who purchases additional coverage under subsection (c) may also receive assistance for the same loss under other programs administered by the Secretary, except that the amount received for the loss under the additional coverage together with the amount received under the other programs may not exceed the amount of the actual loss of the producer.
Paragraph (1) shall not apply to emergency loans under subtitle C of the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act (7 U.S.C. 1961 et seq.).
During the first 4 crop years of planting, as determined by the Secretary, native sod acreage that has been tilled for the production of an annual crop beginning on
The Secretary shall exempt areas of 5 acres or less from subparagraph (A).
During the period native sod acreage is covered by this subsection, a producer may not substitute yields for the native sod.
This subsection shall only apply to native sod acreage in the States of Minnesota, Iowa, North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, and Nebraska.
Beginning with the 2015 crop year, a producer that produces an agricultural commodity on both dry land and irrigated land may elect a different coverage level for each production practice.