United States Code
USC most recently checked for updates: Oct 05, 2022
The term “administering authority” means the Secretary of Commerce, or any other officer of the United States to whom the responsibility for carrying out the duties of the administering authority under this subtitle are transferred by law.
The term “Commission” means the United States International Trade Commission.
The term “country” means a foreign country, a political subdivision, dependent territory, or possession of a foreign country, and, except for the purpose of antidumping proceedings, may include an association of 2 or more foreign countries, political subdivisions, dependent territories, or possessions of countries into a customs union outside the United States.
The term “industry” means the producers as a whole of a domestic like product, or those producers whose collective output of a domestic like product constitutes a major proportion of the total domestic production of the product.
The effect of dumped imports or imports of merchandise benefiting from a countervailable subsidy shall be assessed in relation to the United States production of a domestic like product if available data permit the separate identification of production in terms of such criteria as the production process or the producer’s profits. If the domestic production of the domestic like product has no separate identity in terms of such criteria, then the effect of the dumped imports or imports of merchandise benefiting from a countervailable subsidy shall be assessed by the examination of the production of the narrowest group or range of products, which includes a domestic like product, for which the necessary information can be provided.
For purposes of this subparagraph, the term “raw agricultural product” means any farm or fishery product.
This subparagraph shall cease to have effect if the United States Trade Representative notifies the administering authority and the Commission that the application of this subparagraph is inconsistent with the international obligations of the United States.
Except as provided in paragraph (5B), a countervailable subsidy is a subsidy described in this paragraph which is specific as described in paragraph (5A).
The determination of whether a subsidy exists shall be made without regard to whether the recipient of the subsidy is publicly or privately owned and without regard to whether the subsidy is provided directly or indirectly on the manufacture, production, or export of merchandise. The administering authority is not required to consider the effect of the subsidy in determining whether a subsidy exists under this paragraph.
A change in ownership of all or part of a foreign enterprise or the productive assets of a foreign enterprise does not by itself require a determination by the administering authority that a past countervailable subsidy received by the enterprise no longer continues to be countervailable, even if the change in ownership is accomplished through an arm’s length transaction.
A subsidy is specific if it is an export subsidy described in subparagraph (B) or an import substitution subsidy described in subparagraph (C), or if it is determined to be specific pursuant to subparagraph (D).
An export subsidy is a subsidy that is, in law or in fact, contingent upon export performance, alone or as 1 of 2 or more conditions.
An import substitution subsidy is a subsidy that is contingent upon the use of domestic goods over imported goods, alone or as 1 of 2 or more conditions.
Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs (5) and (5A), in the case of merchandise imported from a Subsidies Agreement country, a subsidy shall be treated as noncountervailable if the administering authority determines in an investigation under part I of this subtitle or a review under part III of this subtitle that the subsidy meets all of the criteria described in subparagraph (B), (C), or (D), as the case may be, or the provisions of subparagraph (E)(i) apply.
The term “industrial research” means planned search or critical investigation aimed at the discovery of new knowledge, with the objective that such knowledge may be useful in developing new products, processes, or services, or in bringing about a significant improvement to existing products, processes, or services.
The term “precompetitive development activity” means the translation of industrial research findings into a plan, blueprint, or design for new, modified, or improved products, processes, or services, whether intended for sale or use, including the creation of a first prototype that would not be capable of commercial use. The term also may include the conceptual formulation and design of products, processes, or services alternatives and initial demonstration or pilot projects, if these same projects cannot be converted or used for industrial application or commercial exploitation. The term does not include routine or periodic alterations to existing products, production lines, manufacturing processes, services, or other ongoing operations even if those alterations may represent improvements.
In the case of a research activity that spans both industrial research and precompetitive development activity, the allowable level of the noncountervailable subsidy shall not exceed 62.5 percent of the costs set forth in subclauses (I), (II), (III), (IV), and (V) of clause (i).
The allowable level of a noncountervailable subsidy described in clause (i) shall be based on the total eligible costs incurred over the duration of a particular project.
The term “general framework of regional development” means that the regional subsidy programs are part of an internally consistent and generally applicable regional development policy, and that regional development subsidies are not granted in isolated geographical points having no, or virtually no, influence on the development of a region.
The term “neutral and objective criteria” means criteria that do not favor certain regions beyond what is appropriate for the elimination or reduction of regional disparities within the framework of the regional development policy.
For purposes of this subparagraph, the term “existing facilities” means facilities that have been in operation for at least 2 years before the date on which the new environmental requirements are imposed.
If a subsidy is provided pursuant to a program that has been notified in accordance with Article 8.3 of the Subsidies Agreement, the subsidy shall be treated as noncountervailable and shall not be subject to investigation or review under this subtitle.
Domestic support measures that are provided with respect to products listed in Annex 1 to the Agreement on Agriculture, and that the administering authority determines conform fully to the provisions of Annex 2 to that Agreement, shall be treated as noncountervailable. Upon request by the administering authority, the Trade Representative shall provide advice regarding the interpretation and application of Annex 2.
The term “material injury” means harm which is not inconsequential, immaterial, or unimportant.
In evaluating the volume of imports of merchandise, the Commission shall consider whether the volume of imports of the merchandise, or any increase in that volume, either in absolute terms or relative to production or consumption in the United States, is significant.
In determining whether there is a threat of material injury, the Commission shall consider information provided to it by the administering authority regarding the nature of the countervailable subsidy granted by a foreign country (particularly whether the countervailable subsidy is a subsidy described in Article 3 or 6.1 of the Subsidies Agreement) and the effects likely to be caused by the countervailable subsidy.
The presence or absence of any factor which the Commission is required to evaluate under subparagraph (C) or (D) shall not necessarily give decisive guidance with respect to the determination by the Commission of material injury.
The Commission shall consider the factors set forth in clause (i) as a whole in making a determination of whether further dumped or subsidized imports are imminent and whether material injury by reason of imports would occur unless an order is issued or a suspension agreement is accepted under this subtitle. The presence or absence of any factor which the Commission is required to consider under clause (i) shall not necessarily give decisive guidance with respect to the determination. Such a determination may not be made on the basis of mere conjecture or supposition.
In investigations under part II of this subtitle, the Commission shall consider whether dumping in the markets of foreign countries (as evidenced by dumping findings or antidumping remedies in other WTO member markets against the same class or kind of merchandise manufactured or exported by the same party as under investigation) suggests a threat of material injury to the domestic industry. In the course of its investigation, the Commission shall request information from the foreign manufacturer, exporter, or United States importer concerning this issue.
For purposes of this clause, the term “WTO member market” means the market of any country which is a WTO member.
For purposes of this clause, the European Communities shall be treated as a foreign country.
In each final determination in which it cumulatively assesses the volume and effect of imports under clause (i), the Commission shall make its determinations based on the record compiled in the first investigation in which it makes a final determination, except that when the administering authority issues its final determination in a subsequently completed investigation, the Commission shall permit the parties in the subsequent investigation to submit comments concerning the significance of the administering authority’s final determination, and shall include such comments and the administering authority’s final determination in the record for the subsequent investigation.
In an investigation which involves a regional industry, and in which the Commission decides that the volume and effect of imports should be cumulatively assessed under this subparagraph, such assessment shall be based upon the volume and effect of imports into the region or regions determined by the Commission. The provisions of clause (iii) shall apply to such investigations.
The Commission shall consider whether any change in the volume, price effects, or impact of imports of the subject merchandise since the filing of the petition in an investigation under part I or II of this subtitle is related to the pendency of the investigation and, if so, the Commission may reduce the weight accorded to the data for the period after the filing of the petition in making its determination of material injury, threat of material injury, or material retardation of the establishment of an industry in the United States.
The Commission may not determine that there is no material injury or threat of material injury to an industry in the United States merely because that industry is profitable or because the performance of that industry has recently improved.
The term “Subsidies Agreement” means the Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures referred to in section 3511(d)(12) of this title.
The term “Agreement on Agriculture” means the Agreement on Agriculture referred to in section 3511(d)(2) of this title.
The term “domestic like product” means a product which is like, or in the absence of like, most similar in characteristics and uses with, the article subject to an investigation under this subtitle.
For purposes of part I of this subtitle, merchandise shall be treated as the product of the country in which it was manufactured or produced without regard to whether it is imported directly from that country and without regard to whether it is imported in the same condition as when exported from that country or in a changed condition by reason of remanufacture or otherwise.
The term “usual commercial quantities”, in any case in which the subject merchandise is sold in the market under consideration at different prices for different quantities, means the quantities in which such merchandise is there sold at the price or prices for one quantity in an aggregate volume which is greater than the aggregate volume sold at the price or prices for any other quantity.
The term “nonmarket economy country” means any foreign country that the administering authority determines does not operate on market principles of cost or pricing structures, so that sales of merchandise in such country do not reflect the fair value of the merchandise.
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any determination made by the administering authority under subparagraph (A) shall not be subject to judicial review in any investigation conducted under part II of this subtitle.
Upon request by the administering authority, the Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection shall provide the administering authority a copy of all public and proprietary information submitted to, or obtained by, the Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection that the administering authority considers relevant to proceedings involving merchandise from nonmarket economy countries. The administering authority shall protect proprietary information obtained under this section from public disclosure in accordance with section 1677f of this title.
Except as otherwise provided by this paragraph, merchandise imported by, or for the use of, a department or agency of the United States Government (including merchandise provided for under chapter 98 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States) is subject to the imposition of countervailing duties or antidumping duties under this subtitle or section 1303 of this title.
The term “United States-Canada Agreement” means the United States-Canada Free-Trade Agreement.
The term “USMCA” has the meaning given that term in section 4502 of this title.
The term “entry” includes, in appropriate circumstances as determined by the administering authority, a reconciliation entry created under a reconciliation process, defined in section 1401(s) of this title, that is initiated by an importer. The liability of an importer under an antidumping or countervailing duty proceeding for entries of merchandise subject to the proceeding will attach to the corresponding reconciliation entry or entries. Suspension of liquidation of the reconciliation entry or entries, for the purpose of enforcing this subtitle, is equivalent to the suspension of liquidation of the corresponding individual entries; but the suspension of liquidation of the reconciliation entry or entries for such purpose does not preclude liquidation for any other purpose.
Imports that would otherwise be negligible under clause (i) shall not be negligible if the aggregate volume of imports of the merchandise from all countries described in clause (i) with respect to which investigations were initiated on the same day exceeds 7 percent of the volume of all such merchandise imported into the United States during the applicable 12-month period.
In determining aggregate volume under clause (ii) or (iv), the Commission shall not consider imports from any country specified in paragraph (7)(G)(ii).
Notwithstanding clauses (i) and (ii), the Commission shall not treat imports as negligible if it determines that there is a potential that imports from a country described in clause (i) will imminently account for more than 3 percent of the volume of all such merchandise imported into the United States, or that the aggregate volumes of imports from all countries described in clause (ii) will imminently exceed 7 percent of the volume of all such merchandise imported into the United States. The Commission shall consider such imports only for purposes of determining threat of material injury.
In the case of an investigation under section 1671 of this title, subparagraph (A) shall be applied to imports of subject merchandise from developing countries by substituting “4 percent” for “3 percent” in subparagraph (A)(i) and by substituting “9 percent” for “7 percent” in subparagraph (A)(ii).
In computing import volumes for purposes of subparagraphs (A) and (B), the Commission may make reasonable estimates on the basis of available statistics.
In an investigation in which the Commission makes a regional industry determination under paragraph (4)(C), the Commission’s examination under subparagraphs (A) and (B) shall be based upon the volume of subject merchandise exported for sale in the regional market in lieu of the volume of all subject merchandise imported into the United States.
The term “subject merchandise” means the class or kind of merchandise that is within the scope of an investigation, a review, a suspension agreement, an order under this subtitle or section 1303 of this title, or a finding under the Antidumping Act, 1921.
The terms “section 1303” and “1303” mean section 1303 of this title as in effect on the day before the effective date of title II of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act.
The term “suspension agreement” means an agreement described in section 1671c(b), 1671c(c), 1673c(b), 1673c(c), or 1673c(l) of this title.
The term “exporter or producer” means the exporter of the subject merchandise, the producer of the subject merchandise, or both where appropriate. For purposes of section 1677b of this title, the term “exporter or producer” includes both the exporter of the subject merchandise and the producer of the same subject merchandise to the extent necessary to accurately calculate the total amount incurred and realized for costs, expenses, and profits in connection with production and sale of that merchandise.
The term “WTO Agreement” means the Agreement defined in section 3501(9) of this title.
The terms “WTO member” and “WTO member country” mean a state, or separate customs territory (within the meaning of Article XII of the WTO Agreement), with respect to which the United States applies the WTO Agreement.
The term “GATT 1994” means the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade annexed to the WTO Agreement.
The term “Trade Representative” means the United States Trade Representative.
The terms “dumped” and “dumping” refer to the sale or likely sale of goods at less than fair value.
The term “dumping margin” means the amount by which the normal value exceeds the export price or constructed export price of the subject merchandise.
The term “weighted average dumping margin” is the percentage determined by dividing the aggregate dumping margins determined for a specific exporter or producer by the aggregate export prices and constructed export prices of such exporter or producer.
The term “developing country” means a country designated as a developing country by the Trade Representative.
In determining whether a country is a developing country under subparagraph (A), the Trade Representative shall consider such economic, trade, and other factors which the Trade Representative considers appropriate, including the level of economic development of such country (the assessment of which shall include a review of the country’s per capita gross national product) and the country’s share of world trade.
A determination that a country is a developing or least developed country pursuant to this paragraph shall be for purposes of this subtitle only and shall not affect the determination of a country’s status as a developing or least developed country with respect to any other law.