For the purposes of this chapter, except when used in amending the provisions of other Acts—
The term “employer” means any carrier (as defined in subsection (b) of this section), and any company which is directly or indirectly owned or controlled by one or more such carriers or under common control therewith, and which operates any equipment or facility or performs any service (except trucking service, casual service, and the casual operation of equipment or facilities) in connection with the transportation of passengers or property by railroad, or the receipt, delivery, elevation, transfer in transit, refrigeration or icing, storage, or handling of property transported by railroad, and any receiver, trustee, or other individual or body, judicial or otherwise, when in the possession of the property or operating all or any part of the business of any such employer: Provided, however
, That the term “employer” shall not include any street, interurban, or suburban electric railway, unless such railway is operating as a part of a general steam-railroad system of transportation, but shall not exclude any part of the general steam-railroad system of transportation now or hereafter operated by any other motive power. The Surface Transportation Board is hereby authorized and directed upon request of the Railroad Retirement Board, or upon complaint of any party interested, to determine after hearing whether any line operated by electric power falls within the terms of this proviso. The term “employer” shall also include railroad associations, traffic associations, tariff bureaus, demurrage bureaus, weighing and inspection bureaus, collection agencies, and other associations, bureaus, agencies, or organizations controlled and maintained wholly or principally by two or more employers as hereinbefore defined and engaged in the performance of services in connection with or incidental to railroad transportation; and railway labor organizations, national in scope, which have been or may be organized in accordance with the provisions of the Railway Labor Act [45 U.S.C. 151
et seq.], and their State and National legislative committees and their general committees and their insurance departments and their local lodges and divisions, established pursuant to the constitution and bylaws of such organizations. The term “employer” shall not include any company by reason of its being engaged in the mining of coal, the supplying of coal to an employer where delivery is not beyond the mine tipple, and the operation of equipment or facilities therefor, or in any of such activities.
An individual is in the service of an employer whether his service is rendered within or without the United States if (i) he is subject to the continuing authority of the employer to supervise and direct the manner of rendition of his service, or he is rendering professional or technical services and is integrated into the staff of the employer, or he is rendering, on the property used in the employer’s operations, other personal services the rendition of which is integrated into the employer’s operations, and (ii) he renders such service for compensation: Provided, however, That an individual shall be deemed to be in the service of an employer, other than a local lodge or division or a general committee of a railway-labor-organization employer, not conducting the principal part of its business in the United States only when he is rendering service to it in the United States; and an individual shall be deemed to be in the service of such a local lodge or division only if (1) all, or substantially all, the individuals constituting its membership are employees of an employer conducting the principal part of its business in the United States; or (2) the headquarters of such local lodge or division is located in the United States; and an individual shall be deemed to be in the service of such a general committee only if (1) he is representing a local lodge or division described in clauses (1) or (2) immediately above; or (2) all, or substantially all, the individuals represented by it are employees of an employer conducting the principal part of its business in the United States; or (3) he acts in the capacity of a general chairman or an assistant general chairman of a general committee which represents individuals rendering service in the United States to an employer, but in such case if his office or headquarters is not located in the United States and the individuals represented by such general committee are employees of an employer not conducting the principal part of its business in the United States, only such proportion of the remuneration for such service shall be regarded as compensation as the proportion which the mileage in the United States under the jurisdiction of such general committee bears to the total mileage under its jurisdiction, unless such mileage formula is inapplicable, in which case the Board may prescribe such other formula as it finds to be equitable, and if the application of such mileage formula, or such other formula as the Board may prescribe, would result in the compensation of the individual being less than 10 per centum of his remuneration for such service no part of such remuneration shall be regarded as compensation: Provided further, That an individual not a citizen or resident of the United States shall not be deemed to be in the service of an employer when rendering service outside the United States to an employer who is required under the laws applicable in the place where the service is rendered to employ therein, in whole or in part, citizens or residents thereof.
Subject to the provisions of section 354 of this title
(1) a day of unemployment, with respect to any employee, means a calendar day on which he is able to work and is available for work and with respect to which (i) no remuneration is payable or accrues to him, and (ii) he has, in accordance with such regulations as the Board may prescribe, registered at an employment office; and (2) a “day of sickness”, with respect to any employee, means a calendar day on which because of any physical, mental, psychological, or nervous injury, illness, sickness, or disease he is not able to work, or, with respect to a female employee, a calendar day on which, because of pregnancy, miscarriage, or the birth of a child, (i) she is unable to work or (ii) working would be injurious to her health, and with respect to which (i) no remuneration is payable or accrues to him, and (ii) in accordance with such regulations as the Board may prescribe, a statement of sickness is filed within such reasonable period, not in excess of ten days, as the Board may prescribe: Provided, however
, That “subsidiary remuneration”, as hereinafter defined in this subsection, shall not be considered remuneration for the purpose of this subsection except with respect to an employee whose base-year compensation, exclusive of earnings from the position or occupation in which he earned such subsidiary remuneration, is less than an amount that is equal to 2.5 times the monthly compensation base for months in such base year as computed under subsection (i) of this section: Provided further
, That remuneration for a working day which includes a part of each of two consecutive calendar days shall be deemed to have been earned on the first of such two days, and any individual who takes work for such working day shall not by reason thereof be deemed not available for work on the second of such calendar days: Provided further
, That any calendar day on which no remuneration is payable to or accrues to an employee solely because of the application to him of mileage or work restrictions agreed upon in schedule agreements between employers and employees or solely because he is standing by for or laying over between regularly assigned trips or tours of duty shall not be considered either a day of unemployment or a day of sickness.
For the purpose of this subsection, the term “subsidiary remuneration” means, with respect to any employee, remuneration not in excess of an average of $15 a day for the period with respect to which such remuneration is payable or accrues, if the work from which the remuneration is derived (i) requires substantially less than full time as determined by generally prevailing standards, and (ii) is susceptible of performance at such times and under such circumstances as not to be inconsistent with the holding of normal full-time employment in another occupation.
[June 25, 1938, ch. 680, § 1], [52 Stat. 1094]; [June 20, 1939, ch. 227], §§ 1–6, 20, [53 Stat. 845], 848; [Aug. 13, 1940, ch. 664], §§ 1, 3, [54 Stat. 785], 786; [Oct. 10, 1940, ch. 842], §§ 2–8, [54 Stat. 1094], 1095; [Apr. 8, 1942, ch. 227, § 15], [56 Stat. 210]; [July 31, 1946, ch. 709], §§ 1, 2, 301–304, [60 Stat. 722], 735, 736; [Oct. 30, 1951, ch. 632, § 26], [65 Stat. 691]; [Aug. 31, 1954, ch. 1164], pt. III, §§ 301–303, [68 Stat. 1041]; [Pub. L. 85–927], pt. II, § 201, Sept. 6, 1958, [72 Stat. 1782]; [Pub. L. 86–28], pt. III, § 301, May 19, 1959, [73 Stat. 30]; [Pub. L. 89–700, title II, § 201], Oct. 30, 1966, [80 Stat. 1087]; [Pub. L. 90–257, title II, § 201], Feb. 15, 1968, [82 Stat. 23]; [Pub. L. 90–624, § 3], Oct. 22, 1968, [82 Stat. 1316]; [Pub. L. 94–92, title I, § 1(a)], (b), Aug. 9, 1975, [89 Stat. 461]; [Pub. L. 98–76, title IV], §§ 402(b), 403(b), 411(a)(1), title V, § 503(b), Aug. 12, 1983, [97 Stat. 434], 436, 441; [Pub. L. 100–647, title VII], §§ 7101(a), (b), 7203(a), Nov. 10, 1988, [102 Stat. 3757], 3758, 3776; [Pub. L. 104–88, title III, § 324(1)], (2), Dec. 29, 1995, [109 Stat. 950].)