United States Code

USC most recently checked for updates: Jul 15, 2024

§ 624.
Promotions: how made
(a)
(1)
When the report of a selection board convened under section 611(a) of this title is approved by the President, the Secretary of the military department concerned shall place the names of all officers approved for promotion within a competitive category on a single list for that competitive category, to be known as a promotion list, in the order of the seniority of such officers on the active-duty list or based on particular merit, as determined by the promotion board. A promotion list is considered to be established under this section as of the date of the approval of the report of the selection board under the preceding sentence.
(2)
Except as provided in subsection (d), officers on a promotion list for a competitive category shall be promoted to the next higher grade when additional officers in that grade and competitive category are needed. Promotions shall be made in the order in which the names of officers appear on the promotion list and after officers previously selected for promotion in that competitive category have been promoted. Officers to be promoted to the grade of first lieutenant or lieutenant (junior grade) shall be promoted in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary concerned.
(3)
(A)
Except as provided in subsection (d), officers on the active-duty list in the grade of first lieutenant or, in the case of the Navy, lieutenant (junior grade) who are on an approved all-fully-qualified-officers list shall be promoted to the next higher grade in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary concerned.
(B)
An all-fully-qualified-officers list shall be considered to be approved for purposes of subparagraph (A) when the list is approved by the President. When so approved, such a list shall be treated in the same manner as a promotion list under this chapter.
(C)
The Secretary of a military department may make a recommendation to the President for approval of an all-fully-qualified-officers list only when the Secretary determines that all officers on the list are needed in the next higher grade to accomplish mission objectives.
(D)
For purposes of this paragraph, an all-fully-qualified-officers list is a list of all officers on the active-duty list in a grade who the Secretary of the military department concerned determines—
(i)
are fully qualified for promotion to the next higher grade; and
(ii)
would be eligible for consideration for promotion to the next higher grade by a selection board convened under section 611(a) of this title upon the convening of such a board.
(E)
If the Secretary of the military department concerned determines that one or more officers or former officers were not placed on an all-fully-qualified-list under this paragraph because of administrative error, the Secretary may prepare a supplemental all-fully-qualified-officers list containing the names of any such officers for approval in accordance with this paragraph.
(b)
(1)
A regular officer who is promoted under this section is appointed in the regular grade to which promoted and a reserve officer who is promoted under this section is appointed in the reserve grade to which promoted.
(2)
The date of rank of an officer appointed to a higher grade under this section is determined under section 741(d) of this title.
(c)
Appointments under this section shall be made by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, except that appointments under this section in the grade of first lieutenant or captain, in the case of officers of the Army, Air Force, Marine Corps, or Space Force, or lieutenant (junior grade) or lieutenant, in the case of officers of the Navy, shall be made by the President alone.
(d)
(1)
Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, the appointment of an officer under this section may be delayed if—
(A)
sworn charges against the officer have been received by an officer exercising general court-martial jurisdiction over the officer and such charges have not been disposed of;
(B)
an investigation is being conducted to determine whether disciplinary action of any kind should be brought against the officer;
(C)
a board of officers has been convened under chapter 60 of this title to review the record of the officer;
(D)
a criminal proceeding in a Federal or State court is pending against the officer;
(E)
substantiated adverse information about the officer that is material to the decision to appoint the officer is under review by the Secretary of Defense or the Secretary concerned; or
(F)
the Secretary of the military department concerned determines that credible information of an adverse nature, including a substantiated adverse finding or conclusion described in section 615(a)(3)(A) of this title, with respect to the officer will result in the convening of a special selection review board under section 628a of this title to review the officer and recommend whether the recommendation for promotion of the officer should be sustained.
If no disciplinary action is taken against the officer, if the charges against the officer are withdrawn or dismissed, if the officer is not ordered removed from active duty by the Secretary concerned under chapter 60 of this title, if the officer is acquitted of the charges brought against him, or if, after a review of substantiated adverse information about the officer regarding the requirement for exemplary conduct set forth in section 7233, 8167, or 9233 of this title, as applicable, the officer is determined to be among the officers best qualified for promotion, as the case may be, then unless action to delay an appointment has also been taken under paragraph (2) the officer shall be retained on the promotion list (including an approved all-fully-qualified-officers list, if applicable) and shall, upon promotion to the next higher grade, have the same date of rank, the same effective date for the pay and allowances of the grade to which promoted, and the same position on the active-duty list as he would have had if no delay had intervened, unless the Secretary concerned determines that the officer was unqualified for promotion for any part of the delay. If the Secretary makes such a determination, the Secretary may adjust such date of rank, effective date of pay and allowances, and position on the active-duty list as the Secretary considers appropriate under the circumstances.
(2)
Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, the appointment of an officer under this section may also be delayed in any case in which there is cause to believe that the officer has not met the requirement for exemplary conduct set forth in section 7233, 8167, or 9233 of this title, as applicable, or is mentally, physically, morally, or professionally unqualified to perform the duties of the grade for which he was selected for promotion. If it is later determined by a civilian official of the Department of Defense (not below the level of Secretary of a military department) that the officer is qualified for promotion to such grade and, after a review of adverse information regarding the requirement for exemplary conduct set forth in section 7233, 8167, or 9233 of this title, as applicable, the officer is determined to be among the officers best qualified for promotion to such grade, the officer shall be retained on the promotion list (including an approved all-fully-qualified-officers list, if applicable) and shall, upon such promotion, have the same date of rank, the same effective date for pay and allowances in the higher grade to which appointed, and the same position on the active-duty list as he would have had if no delay had intervened, unless the Secretary concerned determines that the officer was unqualified for promotion for any part of the delay. If the Secretary makes such a determination, the Secretary may adjust such date of rank, effective date of pay and allowances, and position on the active-duty list as the Secretary considers appropriate under the circumstances.
(3)
In the case of an officer whose promotion is delayed pursuant to paragraph (1)(F) and whose recommendation for promotion is sustained, authorities for the promotion of the officer are specified in section 628a(f) of this title.
(4)
(A)
Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the appointment of an officer may not be delayed under this subsection unless the officer has been given written notice of the grounds for the delay, unless it is impracticable to give such written notice before the effective date of the appointment, in which case such written notice shall be given as soon as practicable. An officer whose promotion has been delayed under this subsection shall be afforded an opportunity to make a written statement to the Secretary concerned in response to the action taken. Any such statement shall be given careful consideration by the Secretary.
(B)
In the case of an officer whose promotion is delayed pursuant to paragraph (1)(F), requirements applicable to notice and opportunity for response to such delay are specified in section 628a(c)(3) of this title.
(5)
An appointment of an officer may not be delayed under this subsection for more than six months after the date on which the officer would otherwise have been appointed unless the Secretary concerned specifies a further period of delay. An officer’s appointment may not be delayed more than 90 days after final action has been taken in any criminal case against such officer in a Federal or State court, more than 90 days after final action has been taken in any court-martial case against such officer, or more than 18 months after the date on which such officer would otherwise have been appointed, whichever is later.
(e)
Notwithstanding subsection (a)(2), in the case of an officer who is selected for promotion by a selection board convened under this chapter, and prior to the placement of the officer’s name on the applicable promotion list is approved 1
1
 So in original.
for transfer to the reserve active-status list of the same or a different armed force, the Secretary concerned may place the officer’s name on a corresponding promotion list on the reserve active-status list without regard to the officer’s competitive category. An officer’s promotion under this subsection shall be made pursuant to section 14308 of this title.
(f)
Notwithstanding subsection (a)(3), in the case of an officer who is placed on an all-fully-qualified-officers list, and is subsequently approved for transfer to the reserve active-status list, the Secretary concerned may place the officer’s name on an appropriate all-fully-qualified-officers list on the reserve active-status list. An officer’s promotion under this subsection shall be made pursuant to section 14308 of this title.
(Added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, § 105, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2857; amended Pub. L. 97–22, § 4(d), July 10, 1981, 95 Stat. 126; Pub. L. 97–295, § 1(8), Oct. 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 1289; Pub. L. 98–525, title V, § 526, Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2525; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, § 505(a)(1), (c)(2)(A), (d)(1), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1085, 1087, 1088; Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title X, § 1062(a)(2), Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2649; Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title V, § 511(a), (d)(1), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2181, 2183; Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title X, § 1063(c)(3), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 322; Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title V, § 502(a), Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 806; Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title V, § 504(c), title VIII, § 809(a), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1742, 1840; Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title V, § 505(a)(3), title IX, § 924(b)(3)(G), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 3568, 3821; Pub. L. 118–31, div. A, title V, § 503(b)(1), Dec. 22, 2023, 137 Stat. 241.)
cite as: 10 USC 624