United States Code
USC most recently checked for updates: Jan 28, 2023
A reconverting bank and each bank that subsequently transfers, presents, or returns a substitute check in any electronic or paper form, and receives consideration for such transfer, presentment, or return shall indemnify the transferee, any subsequent collecting or returning bank, the depositary bank, the drawee, the drawer, the payee, the depositor, and any endorser, up to the amount described in subsections (b) and (c), as applicable, to the extent of any loss incurred by any recipient of a substitute check if that loss occurred due to the receipt of a substitute check instead of the original check.
The amount of the indemnity under subsection (a) shall be the amount of any loss (including costs and reasonable attorney’s fees and other expenses of representation) proximately caused by a breach of a warranty provided under section 5004 of this title.
If a loss described in subsection (a) results in whole or in part from the negligence or failure to act in good faith on the part of an indemnified party, then that party’s indemnification under this section shall be reduced in proportion to the amount of negligence or bad faith attributable to that party.
Nothing in this subsection reduces the rights of a consumer or any other person under the Uniform Commercial Code or other applicable provision of Federal or State law.
The production of the original check, a substitute check, or a copy under paragraph (1) by an indemnifying bank shall not absolve the bank from any liability on a warranty established under this chapter or any other provision of law.
Each indemnifying bank shall be subrogated to the rights of any indemnified party to the extent of the indemnity.
A bank that indemnifies a party under this section may attempt to recover from another party based on a warranty or other claim.
Each indemnified party shall have a duty to comply with all reasonable requests for assistance from an indemnifying bank in connection with any claim the indemnifying bank brings against a warrantor or other party related to a check that forms the basis for the indemnification.