United States Code

USC most recently checked for updates: Nov 30, 2022

§ 1822.
International fishery agreements
(a)
Negotiations
The Secretary of State—
(1)
shall renegotiate treaties as provided for in subsection (b);
(2)
shall negotiate governing international fishery agreements described in section 1821(c) of this title;
(3)
may negotiate boundary agreements as provided for in subsection (d);
(4)
shall, upon the request of and in cooperation with the Secretary, initiate and conduct negotiations for the purpose of entering into international fishery agreements—
(A)
which allow fishing vessels of the United States equitable access to fish over which foreign nations assert exclusive fishery management authority, and
(B)
which provide for the conservation and management of anadromous species and highly migratory species; and
(5)
may enter into such other negotiations, not prohibited by subsection (c), as may be necessary and appropriate to further the purposes, policy, and provisions of this chapter.
(b)
Treaty renegotiation

The Secretary of State, in cooperation with the Secretary, shall initiate, promptly after April 13, 1976, the renegotiation of any treaty which pertains to fishing within the exclusive economic zone (or within the area that will constitute such zone after February 28, 1977), or for anadromous species or Continental Shelf fishery resources beyond such zone or area, and which is in any manner inconsistent with the purposes, policy, or provisions of this chapter, in order to conform such treaty to such purposes, policy, and provisions. It is the sense of Congress that the United States shall withdraw from any such treaty, in accordance with its provisions, if such treaty is not so renegotiated within a reasonable period of time after April 13, 1976.

(c)
International fishery agreements
No international fishery agreement (other than a treaty) which pertains to foreign fishing within the exclusive economic zone (or within the area that will constitute such zone after February 28, 1977), or for anadromous species or Continental Shelf fishery resources beyond such zone or area—
(1)
which is in effect on June 1, 1976, may thereafter be renewed, extended, or amended; or
(2)
may be entered into after May 31, 1976;
by the United States unless it is in accordance with the provisions of section 1821(c) of this title or section 1824(e) of this title.
(d)
Boundary negotiations

The Secretary of State, in cooperation with the Secretary, may initiate and conduct negotiations with any adjacent or opposite foreign nation to establish the boundaries of the exclusive economic zone of the United States in relation to any such nation.

(e)
Highly migratory species agreements
(1)
Evaluation
The Secretary of State, in cooperation with the Secretary, shall evaluate the effectiveness of each existing international fishery agreement which pertains to fishing for highly migratory species. Such evaluation shall consider whether the agreement provides for—
(A)
the collection and analysis of necessary information for effectively managing the fishery, including but not limited to information about the number of vessels involved, the type and quantity of fishing gear used, the species of fish involved and their location, the catch and bycatch levels in the fishery, and the present and probable future condition of any stock of fish involved;
(B)
the establishment of measures applicable to the fishery which are necessary and appropriate for the conservation and management of the fishery resource involved;
(C)
equitable arrangements which provide fishing vessels of the United States with (i) access to the highly migratory species that are the subject of the agreement and (ii) a portion of the allowable catch that reflects the traditional participation by such vessels in the fishery;
(D)
effective enforcement of conservation and management measures and access arrangements throughout the area of jurisdiction; and
(E)
sufficient and dependable funding to implement the provisions of the agreement, based on reasonable assessments of the benefits derived by participating nations.
(2)
Access negotiations

(3)
Reports
The Secretary of State shall report to the Congress—
(A)
within 12 months after November 28, 1990, on the results of the evaluation required under paragraph (1), together with recommendations for addressing any inadequacies identified; and
(B)
within six months after November 28, 1990, on the results of the access negotiations required under paragraph (2).
(4)
Negotiation

The Secretary of State, in consultation with the Secretary, shall undertake such negotiations with respect to international fishery agreements on highly migratory species as are necessary to correct inadequacies identified as a result of the evaluation conducted under paragraph (1).

(5)
South Pacific tuna treaty

It is the sense of the Congress that the United States Government shall, at the earliest opportunity, begin negotiations for the purpose of extending the Treaty on Fisheries Between the Governments of Certain Pacific Island States and the Government of the United States of America, signed at Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea, April 2, 1987, and it 1

1
 So in original.
Annexes, Schedules, and implementing agreements for an additional term of 10 years on terms and conditions at least as favorable to vessels of the United States and the United States Government.

(f)
Nonrecognition
It is the sense of the Congress that the United States Government shall not recognize the claim of any foreign nation to an exclusive economic zone (or the equivalent) beyond such nation’s territorial sea, to the extent that such sea is recognized by the United States, if such nation—
(1)
fails to consider and take into account traditional fishing activity of fishing vessels of the United States;
(2)
fails to recognize and accept that highly migratory species are to be managed by applicable international fishery agreements, whether or not such nation is a party to any such agreement; or
(3)
imposes on fishing vessels of the United States any conditions or restrictions which are unrelated to fishery conservation and management.
(g)
Fishery agreement with Russia
(1)
The Secretary of State, in consultation with the Secretary, is authorized to negotiate and conclude a fishery agreement with Russia of a duration of no more than 3 years, pursuant to which—
(A)
Russia will give United States fishing vessels the opportunity to conduct traditional fisheries within waters claimed by the United States prior to the conclusion of the Agreement between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Maritime Boundary, signed June 1, 1990, west of the maritime boundary, including the western special area described in Article 3(2) of the Agreement;
(B)
the United States will give fishing vessels of Russia the opportunity to conduct traditional fisheries within waters claimed by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics prior to the conclusion of the Agreement referred to in subparagraph (A), east of the maritime boundary, including the eastern special areas described in Article 3(1) of the Agreement;
(C)
catch data shall be made available to the government of the country exercising fisheries jurisdiction over the waters in which the catch occurred; and
(D)
each country shall have the right to place observers on board vessels of the other country and to board and inspect such vessels.
(2)
Vessels operating under a fishery agreement negotiated and concluded pursuant to paragraph (1) shall be subject to regulations and permit requirements of the country in whose waters the fisheries are conducted only to the extent such regulations and permit requirements are specified in that agreement.
(3)
The Secretary of Commerce may promulgate such regulations, in accordance with section 553 of title 5, as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of any fishery agreement negotiated and concluded pursuant to paragraph (1).
(h)
Bycatch reduction agreements
(1)
The Secretary of State, in cooperation with the Secretary, shall seek to secure an international agreement to establish standards and measures for bycatch reduction that are comparable to the standards and measures applicable to United States fishermen for such purposes in any fishery regulated pursuant to this chapter for which the Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of State, determines that such an international agreement is necessary and appropriate.
(2)
An international agreement negotiated under this subsection shall be—
(A)
consistent with the policies and purposes of this chapter; and
(B)
subject to approval by Congress under section 1823 of this title.
(3)
Not later than January 1, 1997, and annually thereafter, the Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of State, shall submit to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Resources of the House of Representatives a report describing actions taken under this subsection.
(Pub. L. 94–265, title II, § 202, Apr. 13, 1976, 90 Stat. 339; Pub. L. 99–659, title I, § 101(c)(2), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3707; Pub. L. 101–627, title I, §§ 105(a), 120(a), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4439, 4459; Pub. L. 102–251, title III, § 301(e), Mar. 9, 1992, 106 Stat. 63; Pub. L. 104–297, title I, § 105(b), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3564.)
cite as: 16 USC 1822