United States Code
USC most recently checked for updates: Jun 05, 2023
Order of restitution
The court, when sentencing a defendant convicted of an offense under this title, section 401, 408(a), 409, 416, 420, or 422(a) of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 841, 848(a), 849, 856, 861, 863) (but in no case shall a participant in an offense under such sections be considered a victim of such offense under this section), or section 5124, 46312, 46502, or 46504 of title 49, other than an offense described in section 3663A(c), may order, in addition to or, in the case of a misdemeanor, in lieu of any other penalty authorized by law, that the defendant make restitution to any victim of such offense, or if the victim is deceased, to the victim’s estate. The court may also order, if agreed to by the parties in a plea agreement, restitution to persons other than the victim of the offense.
The court, in determining whether to order restitution under this section, shall consider—
the amount of the loss sustained by each victim as a result of the offense; and
the financial resources of the defendant, the financial needs and earning ability of the defendant and the defendant’s dependents, and such other factors as the court deems appropriate.
To the extent that the court determines that the complication and prolongation of the sentencing process resulting from the fashioning of an order of restitution under this section outweighs the need to provide restitution to any victims, the court may decline to make such an order.
For the purposes of this section, the term “victim” means a person directly and proximately harmed as a result of the commission of an offense for which restitution may be ordered including, in the case of an offense that involves as an element a scheme, conspiracy, or pattern of criminal activity, any person directly harmed by the defendant’s criminal conduct in the course of the scheme, conspiracy, or pattern. In the case of a victim who is under 18 years of age, incompetent, incapacitated, or deceased, the legal guardian of the victim or representative of the victim’s estate, another family member, or any other person appointed as suitable by the court, may assume the victim’s rights under this section, but in no event shall the defendant be named as such representative or guardian.
The court may also order restitution in any criminal case to the extent agreed to by the parties in a plea agreement.
The order may require that such defendant—
in the case of an offense resulting in damage to or loss or destruction of property of a victim of the offense—
return the property to the owner of the property or someone designated by the owner; or
if return of the property under subparagraph (A) is impossible, impractical, or inadequate, pay an amount equal to the greater of—
the value of the property on the date of the damage, loss, or destruction, or
the value of the property on the date of sentencing,
less the value (as of the date the property is returned) of any part of the property that is returned;
in the case of an offense resulting in bodily injury to a victim including an offense under chapter 109A or chapter 110—
pay an amount equal to the cost of necessary medical and related professional services and devices relating to physical, psychiatric, and psychological care, including nonmedical care and treatment rendered in accordance with a method of healing recognized by the law of the place of treatment;
pay an amount equal to the cost of necessary physical and occupational therapy and rehabilitation; and
reimburse the victim for income lost by such victim as a result of such offense;
in the case of an offense resulting in bodily injury also results in the death of a victim, pay an amount equal to the cost of necessary funeral and related services;
in any case, reimburse the victim for lost income and necessary child care, transportation, and other expenses related to participation in the investigation or prosecution of the offense or attendance at proceedings related to the offense;
in any case, if the victim (or if the victim is deceased, the victim’s estate) consents, make restitution in services in lieu of money, or make restitution to a person or organization designated by the victim or the estate; and
in the case of an offense under sections 1028(a)(7) or 1028A(a) of this title, pay an amount equal to the value of the time reasonably spent by the victim in an attempt to remediate the intended or actual harm incurred by the victim from the offense.
Notwithstanding any other provision of law (but subject to the provisions of subsections (a)(1)(B)(i)(II) and (ii),1
when sentencing a defendant convicted of an offense described in section 401, 408(a), 409, 416, 420, or 422(a) of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 841, 848(a), 849, 856, 861, 863), in which there is no identifiable victim, the court may order that the defendant make restitution in accordance with this subsection.
1So in original. Probably should be “(ii)),”.
An order of restitution under this subsection shall be based on the amount of public harm caused by the offense, as determined by the court in accordance with guidelines promulgated by the United States Sentencing Commission.
In no case shall the amount of restitution ordered under this subsection exceed the amount of the fine which may be ordered for the offense charged in the case.
Restitution under this subsection shall be distributed as follows:
65 percent of the total amount of restitution shall be paid to the State entity designated to administer crime victim assistance in the State in which the crime occurred.
35 percent of the total amount of restitution shall be paid to the State entity designated to receive Federal substance abuse block grant funds.
The court shall not make an award under this subsection if it appears likely that such award would interfere with a forfeiture under chapter 46 or chapter 96 of this title or under the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 801 et seq.).
Notwithstanding section 3612(c) or any other provision of law, a penalty assessment under section 3013 or a fine under subchapter C of chapter 227 shall take precedence over an order of restitution under this subsection.
Requests for community restitution under this subsection may be considered in all plea agreements negotiated by the United States.
The United States Sentencing Commission shall promulgate guidelines to assist courts in determining the amount of restitution that may be ordered under this subsection.
No restitution shall be ordered under this subsection until such time as the Sentencing Commission promulgates guidelines pursuant to this paragraph.
An order of restitution made pursuant to this section shall be issued and enforced in accordance with section 3664.
(Added Pub. L. 97–291, § 5(a),
Oct. 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 1253, § 3579; renumbered § 3663 and amended Pub. L. 98–473, title II, § 212(a)(1), (3), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1987, 2010; Pub. L. 98–596, § 9, Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3138; Pub. L. 99–646, §§ 8(b), 20(a), 77(a), 78(a), 79(a), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3593, 3596, 3618, 3619; Pub. L. 100–182, § 13, Dec. 7, 1987, 101 Stat. 1268; Pub. L. 100–185, § 12, Dec. 11, 1987, 101 Stat. 1285; Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, § 7042, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4399; Pub. L. 101–647, title XXV, § 2509, title XXXV, § 3595, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4863, 4931; Pub. L. 103–272, § 5(e)(12), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1374; Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §§ 40504, 40505, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1947; Pub. L. 104–132, title II, § 205(a), Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1229; Pub. L. 104–294, title VI, §§ 601(r)(1), (2), 605(l), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3502, 3510; Pub. L. 106–310, div. B, title XXXVI, § 3613(c), Oct. 17, 2000, 114 Stat. 1230; Pub. L. 109–59, title VII, § 7128(b), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1910; Pub. L. 110–326, title II, § 202, Sept. 26, 2008, 122 Stat. 3561.)
cite as: 18 USC 3663