United States Code
USC most recently checked for updates: Nov 29, 2023
For the purposes of this chapter—
The term “State”, except as used in the last sentence of section 372(a) of this title, means any State or Territory of the United States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.
The term “Territory” means any Territory or possession of the United States, including the District of Columbia, and excluding the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the Canal Zone.
The term “interstate commerce” means (1) commerce between any State or Territory and any place outside thereof, and (2) commerce within the District of Columbia or within any other Territory not organized with a legislative body.
The term “Department” means Department of Health and Human Services.
The term “Secretary” means the Secretary of Health and Human Services.
The term “person” includes individual, partnership, corporation, and association.
The term “food” means (1) articles used for food or drink for man or other animals, (2) chewing gum, and (3) articles used for components of any such article.
The term “drug” means (A) articles recognized in the official United States Pharmacopoeia,1
official Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States, or official National Formulary, or any supplement to any of them; and (B) articles intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease in man or other animals; and (C) articles (other than food) intended to affect the structure or any function of the body of man or other animals; and (D) articles intended for use as a component of any article specified in clause (A), (B), or (C). A food or dietary supplement for which a claim, subject to sections 343(r)(1)(B) and 343(r)(3) of this title or sections 343(r)(1)(B) and 343(r)(5)(D) of this title, is made in accordance with the requirements of section 343(r) of this title is not a drug solely because the label or the labeling contains such a claim. A food, dietary ingredient, or dietary supplement for which a truthful and not misleading statement is made in accordance with section 343(r)(6) of this title is not a drug under clause (C) solely because the label or the labeling contains such a statement.
1So in original. Probably should be “Pharmacopeia,”.
The term “counterfeit drug” means a drug which, or the container or labeling of which, without authorization, bears the trademark, trade name, or other identifying mark, imprint, or device, or any likeness thereof, of a drug manufacturer, processor, packer, or distributor other than the person or persons who in fact manufactured, processed, packed, or distributed such drug and which thereby falsely purports or is represented to be the product of, or to have been packed or distributed by, such other drug manufacturer, processor, packer, or distributor.
The term “device” (except when used in paragraph (n) of this section and in sections 331(i), 343(f), 352(c), and 362(c) of this title) means an instrument, apparatus, implement, machine, contrivance, implant, in vitro reagent, or other similar or related article, including any component, part, or accessory, which is—
recognized in the official National Formulary, or the United States Pharmacopeia, or any supplement to them,
intended for use in the diagnosis of disease or other conditions, or in the cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease, in man or other animals, or
intended to affect the structure or any function of the body of man or other animals, and
which does not achieve its primary intended purposes through chemical action within or on the body of man or other animals and which is not dependent upon being metabolized for the achievement of its primary intended purposes. The term “device” does not include software functions excluded pursuant to section 360j(o) of this title.
The term “counterfeit device” means a device which, or the container, packaging, or labeling of which, without authorization, bears a trademark, trade name, or other identifying mark or imprint, or any likeness thereof, or is manufactured using a design, of a device manufacturer, processor, packer, or distributor other than the person or persons who in fact manufactured, processed, packed, or distributed such device and which thereby falsely purports or is represented to be the product of, or to have been packed or distributed by, such other device manufacturer, processor, packer, or distributor.
The term “cosmetic” means (1) articles intended to be rubbed, poured, sprinkled, or sprayed on, introduced into, or otherwise applied to the human body or any part thereof for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance, and (2) articles intended for use as a component of any such articles; except that such term shall not include soap.
The term “official compendium” means the official United States Pharmacopoeia, official Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States, official National Formulary, or any supplement to any of them.
The term “label” means a display of written, printed, or graphic matter upon the immediate container of any article; and a requirement made by or under authority of this chapter that any word, statement, or other information appear on the label shall not be considered to be complied with unless such word, statement, or other information also appears on the outside container or wrapper, if any there be, of the retail package of such article, or is easily legible through the outside container or wrapper.
The term “immediate container” does not include package liners.
The term “labeling” means all labels and other written, printed, or graphic matter (1) upon any article or any of its containers or wrappers, or (2) accompanying such article.
If an article is alleged to be misbranded because the labeling or advertising is misleading, then in determining whether the labeling or advertising is misleading there shall be taken into account (among other things) not only representations made or suggested by statement, word, design, device, or any combination thereof, but also the extent to which the labeling or advertising fails to reveal facts material in the light of such representations or material with respect to consequences which may result from the use of the article to which the labeling or advertising relates under the conditions of use prescribed in the labeling or advertising thereof or under such conditions of use as are customary or usual.
The representation of a drug, in its labeling, as an antiseptic shall be considered to be a representation that it is a germicide, except in the case of a drug purporting to be, or represented as, an antiseptic for inhibitory use as a wet dressing, ointment, dusting powder, or such other use as involves prolonged contact with the body.
The term “new drug” means—
Any drug (except a new animal drug or an animal feed bearing or containing a new animal drug) the composition of which is such that such drug is not generally recognized, among experts qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of drugs, as safe and effective for use under the conditions prescribed, recommended, or suggested in the labeling thereof, except that such a drug not so recognized shall not be deemed to be a “new drug” if at any time prior to
June 25, 1938, it was subject to the Food and Drugs Act of June 30, 1906, as amended, and if at such time its labeling contained the same representations concerning the conditions of its use; or
Any drug (except a new animal drug or an animal feed bearing or containing a new animal drug) the composition of which is such that such drug, as a result of investigations to determine its safety and effectiveness for use under such conditions, has become so recognized, but which has not, otherwise than in such investigations, been used to a material extent or for a material time under such conditions.
Except as provided in clause (B), the term “pesticide chemical” means any substance that is a pesticide within the meaning of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act [7 U.S.C. 136 et seq.], including all active and inert ingredients of such pesticide. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the term “pesticide” within such meaning includes ethylene oxide and propylene oxide when such substances are applied on food.
In the case of the use, with respect to food, of a substance described in clause (A) to prevent, destroy, repel, or mitigate microorganisms (including bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, and slime), the following applies for purposes of clause (A):
The definition in such clause for the term “pesticide chemical” does not include the substance if the substance is applied for such use on food, or the substance is included for such use in water that comes into contact with the food, in the preparing, packing, or holding of the food for commercial purposes. The substance is not excluded under this subclause from such definition if the substance is ethylene oxide or propylene oxide, and is applied for such use on food. The substance is not so excluded if the substance is applied for such use on a raw agricultural commodity, or the substance is included for such use in water that comes into contact with the commodity, as follows:
The substance is applied in the field.
The substance is applied at a treatment facility where raw agricultural commodities are the only food treated, and the treatment is in a manner that does not change the status of the food as a raw agricultural commodity (including treatment through washing, waxing, fumigating, and packing such commodities in such manner).
The substance is applied during the transportation of such commodity between the field and such a treatment facility.
The definition in such clause for the term “pesticide chemical” does not include the substance if the substance is a food contact substance as defined in section 348(h)(6) of this title
With respect to the definition of the term “pesticide” that is applicable to the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act [7 U.S.C. 136 et seq.], this clause does not exclude any substance from such definition.
The term “pesticide chemical residue” means a residue in or on raw agricultural commodity or processed food of—
a pesticide chemical; or
any other added substance that is present on or in the commodity or food primarily as a result of the metabolism or other degradation of a pesticide chemical.
Notwithstanding subparagraphs (1) and (2), the Administrator may by regulation except a substance from the definition of “pesticide chemical” or “pesticide chemical residue” if—
its occurrence as a residue on or in a raw agricultural commodity or processed food is attributable primarily to natural causes or to human activities not involving the use of any substances for a pesticidal purpose in the production, storage, processing, or transportation of any raw agricultural commodity or processed food; and
the Administrator, after consultation with the Secretary, determines that the substance more appropriately should be regulated under one or more provisions of this chapter other than sections 342(a)(2)(B) and 346a of this title.
The term “raw agricultural commodity” means any food in its raw or natural state, including all fruits that are washed, colored, or otherwise treated in their unpeeled natural form prior to marketing.
The term “food additive” means any substance the intended use of which results or may reasonably be expected to result, directly or indirectly, in its becoming a component or otherwise affecting the characteristics of any food (including any substance intended for use in producing, manufacturing, packing, processing, preparing, treating, packaging, transporting, or holding food; and including any source of radiation intended for any such use), if such substance is not generally recognized, among experts qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate its safety, as having been adequately shown through scientific procedures (or, in the case of a substance used in food prior to
January 1, 1958, through either scientific procedures or experience based on common use in food) to be safe under the conditions of its intended use; except that such term does not include—
a pesticide chemical residue in or on a raw agricultural commodity or processed food; or
a pesticide chemical; or
a color additive; or
a new animal drug; or
an ingredient described in paragraph (ff) in, or intended for use in, a dietary supplement.
The term “color additive” means a material which—
is a dye, pigment, or other substance made by a process of synthesis or similar artifice, or extracted, isolated, or otherwise derived, with or without intermediate or final change of identity, from a vegetable, animal, mineral, or other source, and
when added or applied to a food, drug, or cosmetic, or to the human body or any part thereof, is capable (alone or through reaction with other substance) of imparting color thereto;
except that such term does not include any material which the Secretary, by regulation, determines is used (or intended to be used) solely for a purpose or purposes other than coloring.
The term “color” includes black, white, and intermediate grays.
Nothing in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph shall be construed to apply to any pesticide chemical, soil or plant nutrient, or other agricultural chemical solely because of its effect in aiding, retarding, or otherwise affecting, directly or indirectly, the growth or other natural physiological processes of produce of the soil and thereby affecting its color, whether before or after harvest.
The term “safe” as used in paragraph (s) of this section and in sections 348, 360b, 360ccc, and 379e of this title, has reference to the health of man or animal.
The term “new animal drug” means any drug intended for use for animals other than man, including any drug intended for use in animal feed but not including such animal feed,—
the composition of which is such that such drug is not generally recognized, among experts qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of animal drugs, as safe and effective for use under the conditions prescribed, recommended, or suggested in the labeling thereof; except that such a drug not so recognized shall not be deemed to be a “new animal drug” if at any time prior to
June 25, 1938, it was subject to the Food and Drug Act of June 30, 1906, as amended, and if at such time its labeling contained the same representations concerning the conditions of its use; or
the composition of which is such that such drug, as a result of investigations to determine its safety and effectiveness for use under such conditions, has become so recognized but which has not, otherwise than in such investigations, been used to a material extent or for a material time under such conditions.
The term “animal feed”, as used in paragraph (w) 2
of this section, in section 360b of this title, and in provisions of this chapter referring to such paragraph or section, means an article which is intended for use for food for animals other than man and which is intended for use as a substantial source of nutrients in the diet of the animal, and is not limited to a mixture intended to be the sole ration of the animal.
2So in original. Probably should be paragraph “(v)”.
The term “informal hearing” means a hearing which is not subject to section 554, 556, or 557 of title 5 and which provides for the following:
The presiding officer in the hearing shall be designated by the Secretary from officers and employees of the Department who have not participated in any action of the Secretary which is the subject of the hearing and who are not directly responsible to an officer or employee of the Department who has participated in any such action.
Each party to the hearing shall have the right at all times to be advised and accompanied by an attorney.
Before the hearing, each party to the hearing shall be given reasonable notice of the matters to be considered at the hearing, including a comprehensive statement of the basis for the action taken or proposed by the Secretary which is the subject of the hearing and a general summary of the information which will be presented by the Secretary at the hearing in support of such action.
At the hearing the parties to the hearing shall have the right to hear a full and complete statement of the action of the Secretary which is the subject of the hearing together with the information and reasons supporting such action, to conduct reasonable questioning, and to present any oral or written information relevant to such action.
The presiding officer in such hearing shall prepare a written report of the hearing to which shall be attached all written material presented at the hearing. The participants in the hearing shall be given the opportunity to review and correct or supplement the presiding officer’s report of the hearing.
The Secretary may require the hearing to be transcribed. A party to the hearing shall have the right to have the hearing transcribed at his expense. Any transcription of a hearing shall be included in the presiding officer’s report of the hearing.
The term “saccharin” includes calcium saccharin, sodium saccharin, and ammonium saccharin.
The term “infant formula” means a food which purports to be or is represented for special dietary use solely as a food for infants by reason of its simulation of human milk or its suitability as a complete or partial substitute for human milk.
The term “abbreviated drug application” means an application submitted under section 355(j) of this title for the approval of a drug that relies on the approved application of another drug with the same active ingredient to establish safety and efficacy, and—
in the case of section 335a of this title, includes a supplement to such an application for a different or additional use of the drug but does not include a supplement to such an application for other than a different or additional use of the drug, and
in the case of sections 335b and 335c of this title, includes any supplement to such an application.
The term “knowingly” or “knew” means that a person, with respect to information—
has actual knowledge of the information, or
acts in deliberate ignorance or reckless disregard of the truth or falsity of the information.
For purposes of section 335a of this title, the term “high managerial agent”—
an officer or director of a corporation or an association,
a partner of a partnership, or
any employee or other agent of a corporation, association, or partnership,
having duties such that the conduct of such officer, director, partner, employee, or agent may fairly be assumed to represent the policy of the corporation, association, or partnership, and
includes persons having management responsibility for—
submissions to the Food and Drug Administration regarding the development or approval of any drug product,
production, quality assurance, or quality control of any drug product, or
research and development of any drug product.
For purposes of sections 335a and 335b of this title, the term “drug product” means a drug subject to regulation under section 355, 360b, or 382 of this title or under section 262 of title 42.
The term “Commissioner” means the Commissioner of Food and Drugs.
The term “dietary supplement”—
means a product (other than tobacco) intended to supplement the diet that bears or contains one or more of the following dietary ingredients:
an herb or other botanical;
an amino acid;
a dietary substance for use by man to supplement the diet by increasing the total dietary intake; or
a concentrate, metabolite, constituent, extract, or combination of any ingredient described in clause (A), (B), (C), (D), or (E);
means a product that—
is intended for ingestion in a form described in section 350(c)(1)(B)(i) of this title; or
complies with section 350(c)(1)(B)(ii) of this title;
is not represented for use as a conventional food or as a sole item of a meal or the diet; and
is labeled as a dietary supplement; and
include an article that is approved as a new drug under section 355 of this title or licensed as a biologic under section 262 of title 42 and was, prior to such approval, certification, or license, marketed as a dietary supplement or as a food unless the Secretary has issued a regulation, after notice and comment, finding that the article, when used as or in a dietary supplement under the conditions of use and dosages set forth in the labeling for such dietary supplement, is unlawful under section 342(f) of this title; and
an article authorized for investigation as a new drug, antibiotic, or biological for which substantial clinical investigations have been instituted and for which the existence of such investigations has been made public,
which was not before such approval, certification, licensing, or authorization marketed as a dietary supplement or as a food unless the Secretary, in the Secretary’s discretion, has issued a regulation, after notice and comment, finding that the article would be lawful under this chapter.3
3So in original. Provision probably should be set flush with subpar. (B).
Except for purposes of paragraph (g) and section 350f of this title, a dietary supplement shall be deemed to be a food within the meaning of this chapter.
The term “processed food” means any food other than a raw agricultural commodity and includes any raw agricultural commodity that has been subject to processing, such as canning, cooking, freezing, dehydration, or milling.
The term “Administrator” means the Administrator of the United States Environmental Protection Agency.
The term “compounded positron emission tomography drug”—
means a drug that—
exhibits spontaneous disintegration of unstable nuclei by the emission of positrons and is used for the purpose of providing dual photon positron emission tomographic diagnostic images; and
has been compounded by or on the order of a practitioner who is licensed by a State to compound or order compounding for a drug described in subparagraph (A), and is compounded in accordance with that State’s law, for a patient or for research, teaching, or quality control; and
includes any nonradioactive reagent, reagent kit, ingredient, nuclide generator, accelerator, target material, electronic synthesizer, or other apparatus or computer program to be used in the preparation of such a drug.
The term “antibiotic drug” means any drug (except drugs for use in animals other than humans) composed wholly or partly of any kind of penicillin, streptomycin, chlortetracycline, chloramphenicol, bacitracin, or any other drug intended for human use containing any quantity of any chemical substance which is produced by a micro-organism and which has the capacity to inhibit or destroy micro-organisms in dilute solution (including a chemically synthesized equivalent of any such substance) or any derivative thereof.
The term “priority supplement” means a drug application referred to in section 101(4) of the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 (111 Stat. 2298).
The term “single-use device” means a device that is intended for one use, or on a single patient during a single procedure.
The term “reprocessed”, with respect to a single-use device, means an original device that has previously been used on a patient and has been subjected to additional processing and manufacturing for the purpose of an additional single use on a patient. The subsequent processing and manufacture of a reprocessed single-use device shall result in a device that is reprocessed within the meaning of this definition.
A single-use device that meets the definition under clause (A) shall be considered a reprocessed device without regard to any description of the device used by the manufacturer of the device or other persons, including a description that uses the term “recycled” rather than the term “reprocessed”.
The term “original device” means a new, unused single-use device.
The term “critical reprocessed single-use device” means a reprocessed single-use device that is intended to contact normally sterile tissue or body spaces during use.
The term “semi-critical reprocessed single-use device” means a reprocessed single-use device that is intended to contact intact mucous membranes and not penetrate normally sterile areas of the body.
The term “major species” means cattle, horses, swine, chickens, turkeys, dogs, and cats, except that the Secretary may add species to this definition by regulation.
The term “minor species” means animals other than humans that are not major species.
The term “minor use” means the intended use of a drug in a major species for an indication that occurs infrequently and in only a small number of animals or in limited geographical areas and in only a small number of animals annually.
The term “major food allergen” means any of the following:
Milk, egg, fish (e.g., bass, flounder, or cod), Crustacean shellfish (e.g., crab, lobster, or shrimp), tree nuts (e.g., almonds, pecans, or walnuts), wheat, peanuts, soybeans, and sesame.
A food ingredient that contains protein derived from a food specified in paragraph (1), except the following:
Any highly refined oil derived from a food specified in paragraph (1) and any ingredient derived from such highly refined oil.
A food ingredient that is exempt under paragraph (6) or (7) of section 343(w) of this title.
The term “tobacco product” means any product made or derived from tobacco, or containing nicotine from any source, that is intended for human consumption, including any component, part, or accessory of a tobacco product (except for raw materials other than tobacco used in manufacturing a component, part, or accessory of a tobacco product).
The term “tobacco product” does not mean an article that is a drug under subsection (g)(1), a device under subsection (h), or a combination product described in section 353(g) of this title.
The products described in paragraph (2) shall be subject to subchapter V of this chapter.
A tobacco product shall not be marketed in combination with any other article or product regulated under this chapter (including a drug, biologic, food, cosmetic, medical device, or a dietary supplement).
The term “tobacco product” does not mean an article that is a food under paragraph (f), if such article contains no nicotine, or no more than trace amounts of naturally occurring nicotine.
The term “critical food” means a food that is—
an infant formula; or
a medical food, as defined in section 360ee(b)(3) of this title.
(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, § 201, 52 Stat. 1040; July 22, 1954, ch. 559, § 1, 68 Stat. 511; Pub. L. 85–929, § 2,
Sept. 6, 1958, 72 Stat. 1784; Pub. L. 86–618, title I, § 101, July 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 397; Pub. L. 87–781, title I, § 102(a), title III, § 307(a), Oct. 10, 1962, 76 Stat. 781, 796; Pub. L. 89–74, §§ 3(a), 9(b), July 15, 1965, 79 Stat. 227, 234; Pub. L. 90–399, § 102, July 13, 1968, 82 Stat. 351; Pub. L. 90–639, §§ 1, 4(a), Oct. 24, 1968, 82 Stat. 1361, 1362; Pub. L. 91–513, title II, § 701(a), (g), Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1281, 1282; Pub. L. 92–516, § 3(3), Oct. 21, 1972, 86 Stat. 998; Pub. L. 94–278, title V, § 502(a)(2)(A), Apr. 22, 1976, 90 Stat. 411; Pub. L. 94–295, § 3(a)(1)(A), (2), May 28, 1976, 90 Stat. 575; Pub. L. 95–203, § 4(b)(3), Nov. 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 1453; Pub. L. 96–359, § 3, Sept. 26, 1980, 94 Stat. 1193; Pub. L. 100–670, title I, § 107(a)(1), Nov. 16, 1988, 102 Stat. 3984; Pub. L. 101–535, § 5(b), Nov. 8, 1990, 104 Stat. 2362; Pub. L. 101–629, § 16(b), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4526; Pub. L. 102–282, § 6, May 13, 1992, 106 Stat. 161; Pub. L. 102–300, § 6(a), (b), June 16, 1992, 106 Stat. 240; Pub. L. 102–571, title I, § 107(1), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4499; Pub. L. 103–80, §§ 3(b), (dd)(1), 4(b), Aug. 13, 1993, 107 Stat. 775, 779; Pub. L. 103–417, §§ 3(a), (b), 10(a), Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4327, 4332; Pub. L. 104–170, title IV, § 402, Aug. 3, 1996, 110 Stat. 1513; Pub. L. 105–115, title I, §§ 121(a), 125(b)(2)(A), (e), Nov. 21, 1997, 111 Stat. 2320, 2325, 2327; Pub. L. 105–324, § 2(a), (c), Oct. 30, 1998, 112 Stat. 3035, 3037; Pub. L. 107–109, § 5(b)(1), Jan. 4, 2002, 115 Stat. 1413; Pub. L. 107–250, title III, § 302(d), Oct. 26, 2002, 116 Stat. 1619; Pub. L. 108–282, title I, § 102(b)(1), (5)(A), (B), title II, § 203(c)(1), Aug. 2, 2004, 118 Stat. 891, 902, 908; Pub. L. 110–85, title X, § 1005(c), Sept. 27, 2007, 121 Stat. 968; Pub. L. 111–31, div. A, title I, § 101(a), June 22, 2009, 123 Stat. 1783; Pub. L. 114–255, div. A, title III, § 3060(d), Dec. 13, 2016, 130 Stat. 1133; Pub. L. 116–304, § 2(b), Jan. 5, 2021, 134 Stat. 4916; Pub. L. 117–11, § 2(a), Apr. 23, 2021, 135 Stat. 262; Pub. L. 117–103, div. P, title I, § 111(a), Mar. 15, 2022, 136 Stat. 789; Pub. L. 117–328, div. FF, title III, § 3401(a)(2), Dec. 29, 2022, 136 Stat. 5838.)
cite as: 21 USC 321