United States Code
USC most recently checked for updates: Jun 03, 2023
Limitations on expending and obligating amounts
Except as specified in this subchapter or any other provision of law, an officer or employee of the United States Government or of the District of Columbia government may not—
make or authorize an expenditure or obligation exceeding an amount available in an appropriation or fund for the expenditure or obligation;
involve either government in a contract or obligation for the payment of money before an appropriation is made unless authorized by law;
make or authorize an expenditure or obligation of funds required to be sequestered under section 252 of the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985; or
involve either government in a contract or obligation for the payment of money required to be sequestered under section 252 of the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985.
This subsection does not apply to a corporation getting amounts to make loans (except paid in capital amounts) without legal liability of the United States Government.
An article to be used by an executive department in the District of Columbia that could be bought out of an appropriation made to a regular contingent fund of the department may not be bought out of another amount available for obligation.
In this subsection—
the term “covered lapse in appropriations” means any lapse in appropriations that begins on or after
December 22, 2018;
the term “District of Columbia public employer” means—
the District of Columbia Courts;
the Public Defender Service for the District of Columbia; or
the District of Columbia government;
the term “employee” includes an officer; and
the term “excepted employee” means an excepted employee or an employee performing emergency work, as such terms are defined by the Office of Personnel Management or the appropriate District of Columbia public employer, as applicable.
Each employee of the United States Government or of a District of Columbia public employer furloughed as a result of a covered lapse in appropriations shall be paid for the period of the lapse in appropriations, and each excepted employee who is required to perform work during a covered lapse in appropriations shall be paid for such work, at the employee’s standard rate of pay, at the earliest date possible after the lapse in appropriations ends, regardless of scheduled pay dates, and subject to the enactment of appropriations Acts ending the lapse.
During a covered lapse in appropriations, each excepted employee who is required to perform work shall be entitled to use leave under chapter 63 of title 5, or any other applicable law governing the use of leave by the excepted employee, for which compensation shall be paid at the earliest date possible after the lapse in appropriations ends, regardless of scheduled pay dates.
(Pub. L. 97–258,
Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 923; Pub. L. 101–508, title XIII, § 13213(a), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–621; Pub. L. 116–1, § 2, Jan. 16, 2019, 133 Stat. 3; Pub. L. 116–5, § 103, Jan. 25, 2019, 133 Stat. 11.)
cite as: 31 USC 1341