United States Code
USC most recently checked for updates: Nov 28, 2023
If, on the basis of the evidence presented at a hearing before the Board of Directors (or any person designated by the Board for such purpose), in which all issues shall be determined on the record pursuant to section 554 of title 5 and the written findings of the Board of Directors (or such person) with respect to such evidence (which shall be conclusive), the Board of Directors finds that any unsafe or unsound practice or condition or any violation specified in the notice to an insured depository institution under paragraph (2)(B) or subsection (w) has been established, the Board of Directors may issue an order terminating the insured status of such depository institution effective as of a date subsequent to such finding.
Unless the depository institution shall appear at the hearing by a duly authorized representative, it shall be deemed to have consented to the termination of its status as an insured depository institution and termination of such status thereupon may be ordered.
Any insured depository institution whose insured status has been terminated by order of the Board of Directors under this subsection shall have the right of judicial review of such order only to the same extent as provided for the review of orders under subsection (h) of this section.
The Corporation may publish notice of such termination and the depository institution shall give notice of such termination to each of its depositors at his last address of record on the books of the depository institution, in such manner and at such time as the Board of Directors may find to be necessary and may order for the protection of depositors.
After the termination of the insured status of any depository institution under the provisions of this subsection, the insured deposits of each depositor in the depository institution on the date of such termination, less all subsequent withdrawals from any deposits of such depositor, shall continue for a period of at least 6 months or up to 2 years, within the discretion of the Board of Directors, to be insured, and the depository institution shall continue to pay to the Corporation assessments as in the case of an insured depository institution during such period. No additions to any such deposits and no new deposits in such depository institution made after the date of such termination shall be insured by the Corporation, and the depository institution shall not advertise or hold itself out as having insured deposits unless in the same connection it shall also state with equal prominence that such additions to deposits and new deposits made after such date are not so insured. Such depository institution shall, in all other respects, be subject to the duties and obligations of an insured depository institution for the period referred to in the 1st sentence from the date of such termination, and in the event that such depository institution shall be closed on account of inability to meet the demands of its depositors within such period, the Corporation shall have the same powers and rights with respect to such depository institution as in case of an insured depository institution.
If the Board of Directors initiates a termination proceeding under paragraph (2), and the Board of Directors, after consultation with the appropriate Federal banking agency, finds that an insured depository institution (other than a savings association to which subparagraph (B) applies) has no tangible capital under the capital guidelines or regulations of the appropriate Federal banking agency, the Corporation may issue a temporary order suspending deposit insurance on all deposits received by the institution.
In determining the tangible capital of a savings association for purposes of this paragraph, the Board of Directors shall include goodwill to the extent it is considered a component of capital under section 1464(t) of this title. Any savings association which would be subject to a suspension order under subparagraph (A) but for the operation of this subparagraph, shall be considered by the Corporation to be a “special supervisory association”.
Any order issued under subparagraph (A) shall become effective not earlier than 10 days from the date of service upon the institution and, unless set aside, limited, or suspended by a court in proceedings authorized hereunder, such temporary order shall remain effective and enforceable until an order of the Board under paragraph (3) becomes final or until the Corporation dismisses the proceedings under paragraph (3).
Before the close of the 10-day period beginning on the date any temporary order has been served upon an insured depository institution under subparagraph (A), such institution may apply to the United States District Court for the District of Columbia, or the United States district court for the judicial district in which the home office of the institution is located, for an injunction setting aside, limiting, or suspending the enforcement, operation, or effectiveness of such order, and such court shall have jurisdiction to issue such injunction.
The insured deposits of each depositor in such depository institution on the effective date of the order issued under this paragraph, minus all subsequent withdrawals from any deposits of such depositor, shall continue to be insured, subject to the administrative proceedings as provided in this chapter.
The depository institution shall give notice of such order to each of its depositors in such manner and at such times as the Board of Directors may find to be necessary and may order for the protection of depositors.
If the Corporation determines that the depository institution has not substantially complied with the notice to depositors required by the Board of Directors, the Corporation may provide such notice in such manner as the Board of Directors may find to be necessary and appropriate.
In making any determination regarding the termination of insurance of a solvent savings association, the Corporation may consider the extent of the association’s low- to moderate-income housing loans.
In the case of violation or threatened violation of, or failure to obey, a temporary cease-and-desist order issued pursuant to paragraph (1) of subsection (c) of this section, the appropriate Federal banking agency may apply to the United States district court, or the United States court of any territory, within the jurisdiction of which the home office of the depository institution is located, for an injunction to enforce such order, and, if the court shall determine that there has been such violation or threatened violation or failure to obey, it shall be the duty of the court to issue such injunction.
Within ten days after any institution-affiliated party has been suspended from office and/or prohibited from participation in the conduct of the affairs of an insured depository institution under subsection (e)(3) of this section, such party may apply to the United States district court for the judicial district in which the home office of the depository institution is located, or the United States District Court for the District of Columbia, for a stay of such suspension and/or prohibition pending the completion of the administrative proceedings pursuant to the notice served upon such party under subsection (e)(1) or (e)(2) of this section, and such court shall have jurisdiction to stay such suspension and/or prohibition.
Any service required or authorized to be made by the appropriate Federal banking agency under this section may be made by registered mail, or in such other manner reasonably calculated to give actual notice as the agency may by regulation or otherwise provide. Copies of any notice or order served by the agency upon any State depository institution or any institution-affiliated party, pursuant to the provisions of this section, shall also be sent to the appropriate State supervisory authority.
In connection with any proceeding under subsection (b), (c)(1), or (e) of this section involving an insured State bank or any institution-affiliated party, the appropriate Federal banking agency shall provide the appropriate State supervisory authority with notice of the agency’s intent to institute such a proceeding and the grounds therefor. Unless within such time as the Federal banking agency deems appropriate in the light of the circumstances of the case (which time must be specified in the notice prescribed in the preceding sentence) satisfactory corrective action is effectuated by action of the State supervisory authority, the agency may proceed as provided in this section. No bank or other party who is the subject of any notice or order issued by the agency under this section shall have standing to raise the requirements of this subsection as ground for attacking the validity of any such notice or order.
In the course of or in connection with any proceeding under this section, or in connection with any claim for insured deposits or any examination or investigation under section 1820(c) of this title, the agency conducting the proceeding, examination, or investigation or considering the claim for insured deposits, or any member or designated representative thereof, including any person designated to conduct any hearing under this section, shall have the power to administer oaths and affirmations, to take or cause to be taken depositions, and to issue, revoke, quash, or modify subpenas and subpenas duces tecum; and such agency is empowered to make rules and regulations with respect to any such proceedings, claims, examinations, or investigations. The attendance of witnesses and the production of documents provided for in this subsection may be required from any place in any State or in any territory or other place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States at any designated place where such proceeding is being conducted. Any such agency or any party to proceedings under this section may apply to the United States District Court for the District of Columbia, or the United States district court for the judicial district or the United States court in any territory in which such proceeding is being conducted, or where the witness resides or carries on business, for enforcement of any subpena or subpena duces tecum issued pursuant to this subsection, and such courts shall have jurisdiction and power to order and require compliance therewith. Witnesses subpenaed under this subsection shall be paid the same fees and mileage that are paid witnesses in the district courts of the United States. Any court having jurisdiction of any proceeding instituted under this section by an insured depository institution or a director or officer thereof, may allow to any such party such reasonable expenses and attorneys’ fees as it deems just and proper; and such expenses and fees shall be paid by the depository institution or from its assets. Any person who willfully shall fail or refuse to attend and testify or to answer any lawful inquiry or to produce books, papers, correspondence, memoranda, contracts, agreements, or other records, if in such person’s power so to do, in obedience to the subpoena of the appropriate Federal banking agency, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction, shall be subject to a fine of not more than $1,000 or to imprisonment for a term of not more than one year or both.
Whenever the insured status of a State member bank shall be terminated by action of the Board of Directors, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System shall terminate its membership in the Federal Reserve System in accordance with the provisions of subchapter VIII of chapter 3 of this title, and whenever the insured status of a national member bank shall be so terminated the Comptroller of the Currency shall appoint a receiver for the bank, which shall be the Corporation. Except as provided in subsection (c) or (d) of section 1814 of this title, whenever a member bank shall cease to be a member of the Federal Reserve System, its status as an insured depository institution shall, without notice or other action by the Board of Directors, terminate on the date the bank shall cease to be a member of the Federal Reserve System, with like effect as if its insured status had been terminated on said date by the Board of Directors after proceedings under subsection (a) of this section. Whenever the insured status of an insured Federal savings bank shall be terminated by action of the Board of Directors, the Comptroller of the Currency shall appoint a receiver for the bank, which shall be the Corporation.
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, whenever the Board of Directors shall determine that an insured depository institution is not engaged in the business of receiving deposits, other than trust funds as herein defined, the Corporation shall notify the depository institution that its insured status will terminate at the expiration of the first full assessment period following such notice. A finding by the Board of Directors that a depository institution is not engaged in the business of receiving deposits, other than such trust funds, shall be conclusive. The Board of Directors shall prescribe the notice to be given by the depository institution of such termination and the Corporation may publish notice thereof. Upon the termination of the insured status of any such depository institution, its deposits shall thereupon cease to be insured and the depository institution shall thereafter be relieved of all future obligations to the Corporation, including the obligation to pay future assessments.
Whenever the liabilities of an insured depository institution for deposits shall have been assumed by another insured depository institution or depository institutions, whether by way of merger, consolidation, or other statutory assumption, or pursuant to contract (1) the insured status of the depository institution whose liabilities are so assumed shall terminate on the date of receipt by the Corporation of satisfactory evidence of such assumption; (2) the separate insurance of all deposits so assumed shall terminate at the end of six months from the date such assumption takes effect or, in the case of any time deposit, the earliest maturity date after the six-month period. Where the deposits of an insured depository institution are assumed by a newly insured depository institution, the depository institution whose deposits are assumed shall not be required to pay any assessment with respect to the deposits which have been so assumed after the assessment period in which the assumption takes effect.
Each appropriate Federal banking agency shall prescribe regulations requiring insured depository institutions to establish and maintain procedures reasonably designed to assure and monitor the compliance of such depository institutions with the requirements of subchapter II of chapter 53 of title 31.
Each examination of an insured depository institution by the appropriate Federal banking agency shall include a review of the procedures required to be established and maintained under paragraph (1).
The report of examination shall describe any problem with the procedures maintained by the insured depository institution.
The Corporation, based on an examination of an insured depository institution by the Corporation or by the appropriate Federal banking agency or on other information, may recommend in writing to the appropriate Federal banking agency that the agency take any enforcement action authorized under section 1817(j) of this title, this section, or
The Corporation may, upon a vote of the Board of Directors, and after notice to the appropriate Federal banking agency, exercise its authority under paragraph (2) in exigent circumstances without regard to the time period set forth in paragraph (2).
The Corporation shall, by agreement with the appropriate Federal banking agency, set forth those exigent circumstances in which the Corporation may act under subparagraph (A).
A regional office of an appropriate Federal banking agency (including a Federal Reserve bank) that requests a formal investigation of or civil enforcement action against an insured depository institution or institution-affiliated party shall submit the request concurrently to the chief officer of the appropriate Federal banking agency and to the Corporation.
Each appropriate Federal banking agency shall report semiannually to the Corporation on the status or disposition of all requests under subparagraph (A), including the reasons for any decision by the agency to approve or deny such requests.
Subject to subtitle B of the Consumer Financial Protection Act of 2010 [12 U.S.C. 5511 et seq.], each appropriate Federal banking agency shall make a referral to the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection when the Federal banking agency has a reasonable belief that a violation of an enumerated consumer law, as defined in the Consumer Financial Protection Act of 2010, has been committed by any insured depository institution or institution-affiliated party within the jurisdiction of that appropriate Federal banking agency.
All hearings on the record with respect to any notice of charges issued by a Federal banking agency shall be open to the public, unless the agency, in its discretion, determines that holding an open hearing would be contrary to the public interest.
A transcript that includes all testimony and other documentary evidence shall be prepared for all hearings commenced pursuant to subsection (i). A transcript of public hearings shall be made available to the public pursuant to section 552 of title 5.
If the appropriate Federal banking agency makes a determination in writing that the publication of a final order pursuant to paragraph (1)(B) would seriously threaten the safety and soundness of an insured depository institution, the agency may delay the publication of the document for a reasonable time.
The appropriate Federal banking agency may file any document or part of a document under seal in any administrative enforcement hearing commenced by the agency if disclosure of the document would be contrary to the public interest. A written report shall be made part of any determination to withhold any part of a document from the transcript of the hearing required by paragraph (2).
Each Federal banking agency shall keep and maintain a record, for a period of at least 6 years, of all documents described in paragraph (1) and all informal enforcement agreements and other supervisory actions and supporting documents issued with respect to or in connection with any administrative enforcement proceeding initiated by such agency under this section or any other laws.
No provision of this subsection may be construed to authorize the withholding, or to prohibit the disclosure, of any information to the Congress or any committee or subcommittee of the Congress.
Any appropriate Federal banking agency may, at the request of any foreign banking authority, assist such authority if such authority states that the requesting authority is conducting an investigation to determine whether any person has violated, is violating, or is about to violate any law or regulation relating to banking matters or currency transactions administered or enforced by the requesting authority.
Any appropriate Federal banking agency may, in such agency’s discretion, investigate and collect information and evidence pertinent to a request for assistance under subparagraph (A). Any such investigation shall comply with the laws of the United States and the policies and procedures of the appropriate Federal banking agency.
For purposes of any Federal law or appropriate Federal banking agency regulation relating to the collection or transfer of information by any appropriate Federal banking agency, the foreign banking authority shall be treated as another appropriate Federal banking agency.
Paragraphs (1) and (2) shall not be construed to limit the authority of an appropriate Federal banking agency or any other Federal agency to provide or receive assistance or information to or from any foreign authority with respect to any matter.
If an insured State depository institution has been convicted of any criminal offense under section 1956 or 1957 of title 18, the Attorney General shall provide to the Corporation a written notification of the conviction and shall include a certified copy of the order of conviction from the court rendering the decision.
After receipt of written notification from the Attorney General by the Corporation of such a conviction, the Board of Directors shall issue to the insured depository institution a notice of its intention to terminate the insured status of the insured depository institution and schedule a hearing on the matter, which shall be conducted in all respects as a termination hearing pursuant to paragraphs (3) through (5) of subsection (a).
If an insured State depository institution is convicted of any criminal offense under section 5322 or 5324 of title 31 after receipt of written notification from the Attorney General by the Corporation, the Board of Directors may initiate proceedings to terminate the insured status of the insured depository institution in the manner described in subparagraph (A).
The Corporation shall simultaneously transmit a copy of any notice issued under this paragraph to the appropriate State financial institutions supervisor.
Upon termination of the insured status of any State depository institution pursuant to paragraph (1), the deposits of such depository institution shall be treated in accordance with subsection (a)(7).
This subsection shall not apply to a successor to the interests of, or a person who acquires, an insured depository institution that violated a provision of law described in paragraph (1), if the successor succeeds to the interests of the violator, or the acquisition is made, in good faith and not for purposes of evading this subsection or regulations prescribed under this subsection.
The term “senior executive officer” has the same meaning as in regulations prescribed under section 1831i(f) of this title.