United States Code
USC most recently checked for updates: Jun 08, 2023
The Board of Directors shall administer the affairs of the Corporation fairly and impartially and without discrimination. The Board of Directors of the Corporation shall determine and prescribe the manner in which its obligations shall be incurred and its expenses allowed and paid. The Corporation shall be entitled to the free use of the United States mails in the same manner as the executive departments of the Government. The Corporation with the consent of any Federal Reserve bank or of any board, commission, independent establishment, or executive department of the Government, including any field service thereof, may avail itself of the use of information, services, and facilities thereof in carrying out the provisions of this chapter.
The Board of Directors shall appoint examiners and claims agents.
In addition to the examinations authorized under paragraph (2), any examiner appointed under paragraph (1) shall have power, on behalf of the Corporation, to make any special examination of any insured depository institution or nonbank financial company supervised by the Board of Governors or a bank holding company described in section 165(a) of the Financial Stability Act of 2010 [12 U.S.C. 5365(a)], whenever the Board of Directors determines that a special examination of any such depository institution is necessary to determine the condition of such depository institution for insurance purposes, or of such nonbank financial company supervised by the Board of Governors or bank holding company described in section 165(a) of the Financial Stability Act of 2010 [12 U.S.C. 5365(a)], for the purpose of implementing its authority to provide for orderly liquidation of any such company under title II 1
Before conducting a special examination of a nonbank financial company supervised by the Board of Governors or a bank holding company described in section 165(a) of the Financial Stability Act of 2010 [12 U.S.C. 5365(a)], the Corporation shall review any available and acceptable resolution plan that the company has submitted in accordance with section 165(d) of that Act [12 U.S.C. 5365(d)], consistent with the nonbinding effect of such plan, and available reports of examination, and shall coordinate to the maximum extent practicable with the Board of Governors, in order to minimize duplicative or conflicting examinations.
No branch or depository institution subsidiary of a foreign bank may become an insured depository institution unless such foreign bank submits a written binding commitment to the Board of Directors to permit any examination of any affiliate of such branch or depository institution subsidiary pursuant to subparagraph (A) to the extent determined by the Board of Directors to be necessary to carry out the purposes of this chapter.
Each claim agent appointed under paragraph (1) shall have power to investigate and examine all claims for insured deposits.
In connection with examinations of insured depository institutions and any State nonmember bank, savings association, or other institution making application to become insured depository institutions, and affiliates thereof, or with other types of investigations to determine compliance with applicable law and regulations, the appropriate Federal banking agency, or its designated representatives, are authorized to administer oaths and affirmations, and to examine and to take and preserve testimony under oath as to any matter in respect to the affairs or ownership of any such bank or institution or affiliate thereof, and to exercise such other powers as are set forth in section 1818(n) of this title.
The appropriate Federal banking agency shall, not less than once during each 12-month period, conduct a full-scope, on-site examination of each insured depository institution.
Paragraph (1) shall not apply during any 12-month period in which the Corporation has conducted a full-scope, on-site examination of the insured depository institution.
The examinations required by paragraph (1) may be conducted in alternate 12-month periods, as appropriate, if the appropriate Federal banking agency determines that an examination of the insured depository institution conducted by the State during the intervening 12-month period carries out the purpose of this subsection.
Notwithstanding paragraph (6), each appropriate Federal banking agency may conduct a separate examination in an emergency or under other exigent circumstances, or when the agency believes that a violation of law may have occurred.
At the time the system provided for in paragraph (6) is established, the Federal banking agencies shall submit a joint report describing the system to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs of the House of Representatives. Thereafter, the Federal banking agencies shall annually submit a joint report to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs of the House of Representatives regarding the progress of the agencies in implementing the system and indicating areas in which enhancements to the system, including legislature improvements, would be appropriate.
The Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council shall issue guidelines establishing standards to be used at the discretion of the appropriate Federal banking agency for purposes of making a determination under paragraph (3).
At any time after the end of the 2-year period beginning on
The cost of conducting any regular examination or special examination of any depository institution under subsection (b)(2), (b)(3), or (d) or of any entity described in section 1813(q)(2) of this title may be assessed by the Corporation against the institution or entity to meet the expenses of the Corporation in carrying out such examinations.
The cost of conducting any examination of any affiliate of any insured depository institution under subsection (b)(4) may be assessed by the Corporation against each affiliate which is examined to meet the Corporation’s expenses in carrying out such examination.
If any affiliate referred to in subparagraph (A) is an affiliate of more than 1 insured depository institution, the assessment under subparagraph (A) may be assessed against the depository institutions in such proportions as the Corporation determines to be appropriate.
Any penalty imposed under subparagraph (A) shall be assessed and collected by the Corporation in the manner provided in section 1818(i)(2) of this title.
Amounts received by the Corporation under this subsection (other than paragraph (4)) may be deposited in the manner provided in section 1823 of this title.
Any photographs, microphotographs, or photographic film or copies thereof described in paragraph (1)(A) or reproduction of electronically stored data described in paragraph (1)(B) shall be deemed to be an original record for all purposes, including introduction in evidence in all State and Federal courts or administrative agencies, and shall be admissible to prove any act, transaction, occurrence, or event therein recorded.
Any photographs, microphotographs, or photographic film or copies thereof described in paragraph (1)(A) or reproduction of electronically stored data described in paragraph (1)(B) shall be preserved in such manner as the Federal banking agency shall prescribe, and the original records, papers, or documents may be destroyed or otherwise disposed of as the Federal banking agency may direct.
The appropriate State bank supervisor of the home State of an insured State bank has authority to examine and supervise the bank.
The State bank supervisor of the home State of an insured State bank and any State bank supervisor of an appropriate host State shall exercise its respective authority to supervise and examine the branches of the bank in a host State in accordance with the terms of any applicable cooperative agreement between the home State bank supervisor and the State bank supervisor of the relevant host State.
Except as expressly provided in a cooperative agreement between the State bank supervisors of the home State and any host State of an insured State bank, only the State bank supervisor of the home State of an insured State bank may levy or charge State supervisory fees on the bank.
The State bank supervisor of the home State of an insured State bank shall notify the State bank supervisor of each host State of the bank if there has been a final determination that the bank is in a troubled condition.
The State bank supervisor of the home State of an insured State bank shall provide notice under clause (i) as soon as is reasonably possible, but in all cases not later than 15 business days after the date on which the State bank supervisor has made such final determination or has received written notification of such final determination.
If the State bank supervisor of a host State determines that a branch of an out-of-State insured State bank is violating any law of the host State that is applicable to such branch pursuant to section 1831a(j) of this title, including a law that governs community reinvestment, fair lending, or consumer protection, the State bank supervisor of the host State or, to the extent authorized by the law of the host State, a host State law enforcement officer may, with written notice to the State bank supervisor of the bank’s home State and subject to the terms of any applicable cooperative agreement with the State bank supervisor of the bank’s home State, undertake such enforcement actions and proceedings as would be permitted under the law of the host State as if the branch were a bank chartered by that host State.
The State bank supervisors from 2 or more States may enter into cooperative agreements to facilitate State regulatory supervision of State banks, including cooperative agreements relating to the coordination of examinations and joint participation in examinations.
For purposes of this subsection, the term “cooperative agreement” means a written agreement that is signed by the home State bank supervisor and the host State bank supervisor to facilitate State regulatory supervision of State banks, and includes nationwide or multi-State cooperative agreements and cooperative agreements solely between the home State and host State.
Except for State bank supervisors, no provision of this subsection relating to such cooperative agreements shall be construed as limiting in any way the authority of home State and host State law enforcement officers, regulatory supervisors, or other officials that have not signed such cooperative agreements to enforce host State laws that are applicable to a branch of an out-of-State insured State bank located in the host State pursuant to section 1831a(j) of this title.
No provision of this subsection shall be construed as limiting in any way the authority of any Federal banking agency.
No provision of this subsection shall be construed as affecting the authority of any State or political subdivision of any State to adopt, apply, or administer any tax or method of taxation to any bank, bank holding company, or foreign bank, or any affiliate of any bank, bank holding company, or foreign bank, to the extent that such tax or tax method is otherwise permissible by or under the Constitution of the United States or other Federal law.
The terms “host State”, “home State”, and “out-of-State bank” have the same meanings as in section 1831u(g) of this title.
The term “State supervisory fees” means assessments, examination fees, branch fees, license fees, and all other fees that are levied or charged by a State bank supervisor directly upon an insured State bank or upon branches of an insured State bank.
For purposes of paragraph (2)(B), the term “final determination” means the transmittal of a report of examination to the bank or transmittal of official notice of proceedings to the bank.
The appropriate Federal banking agency shall, during each scheduled on-site examination required by this section, determine whether the insured depository institution is complying with the requirements of the national flood insurance program.
Not later than 1 year after
Each report submitted under this paragraph shall include a description of the methods used to determine compliance, the number of institutions examined during the reporting year, a listing and total number of institutions found not to be in compliance, actions taken to correct incidents of noncompliance, and an analysis of compliance, including a discussion of any trends, patterns, and problems, and recommendations regarding reasonable actions to improve the efficiency of the examinations processes.
Each appropriate Federal banking agency shall consider appointing an examiner-in-charge with respect to a depository institution to ensure consultation on examination activities among all of the examiners of that agency involved in examinations of the institution.
For purposes of this subsection, a foreign bank shall be deemed to control any branch or agency of the foreign bank, and a person shall be deemed to act as a consultant for a depository institution, depository institution holding company, or other company, only if such person directly works on matters for, or on behalf of, such depository institution, depository institution holding company, or other company.
Each Federal banking agency shall prescribe rules or regulations to administer and carry out this subsection, including rules, regulations, or guidelines to define the scope of persons referred to in paragraph (1)(B).
The Federal banking agencies shall consult with each other for the purpose of assuring that the rules and regulations issued by the agencies under subparagraph (A) are, to the extent possible, consistent, comparable, and practicable, taking into account any differences in the supervisory programs utilized by the agencies for the supervision of depository institutions and depository institution holding companies.
The Federal banking agency may, in an administrative proceeding or civil action in an appropriate United States district court, impose on such person a civil monetary penalty of not more than $250,000. Any administrative proceeding under this clause shall be conducted in accordance with section 1818(i) of this title. In lieu of an action by the Federal banking agency under this clause, the Attorney General of the United States may bring a civil action under this clause in the appropriate United States district court.
Any person subject to an order issued under subparagraph (A)(i) shall be subject to paragraphs (6) and (7) of section 1818(e) of this title in the same manner and to the same extent as a person subject to an order issued under such section.
Solely for purposes of this paragraph, the “appropriate Federal banking agency” for a company that is not a depository institution or depository institution holding company shall be the Federal banking agency on whose behalf the person described in paragraph (1) performed the functions described in paragraph (1)(B).