United States Code

USC most recently checked for updates: Apr 17, 2024

§ 2241.
Estimates of barriers to market access
National trade estimates
In general
For calendar year 1988, and for each succeeding calendar year, the United States Trade Representative, through the interagency trade organization established pursuant to section 1872(a) of this title and with the assistance of the interagency advisory committee established under section 2171(d)(2) of this title, shall—
identify and analyze acts, policies, or practices of each foreign country which constitute significant barriers to, or distortions of—
United States exports of goods or services (including agricultural commodities; and property protected by trademarks, patents, and copyrights exported or licensed by United States persons),
foreign direct investment by United States persons, especially if such investment has implications for trade in goods or services; 1
 So in original. The semicolon probably should be a comma.
United States electronic commerce,2
 So in original. The comma probably should be a semicolon.
make an estimate of the trade-distorting impact on United States commerce of any act, policy, or practice identified under subparagraph (A); and
make an estimate, if feasible, of—
the value of additional goods and services of the United States,
the value of additional foreign direct investment by United States persons, and
the value of additional United States electronic commerce,
that would have been exported to, or invested in or transacted with,,3
 So in original.
each foreign country during such calendar year if each of such acts, policies, and practices of such country did not exist.
Certain factors taken into account in making analysis and estimate
In making any analysis or estimate under paragraph (1), the Trade Representative shall take into account—
the relative impact of the act, policy, or practice on United States commerce;
the availability of information to document prices, market shares, and other matters necessary to demonstrate the effects of the act, policy, or practice;
the extent to which such act, policy, or practice is subject to international agreements to which the United States is a party;
any advice given through appropriate committees established pursuant to section 2155 of this title; and
the actual increase in—
the value of goods and services of the United States exported to,
the value of foreign direct investment made in, and
the value of electronic commerce transacted with,
the foreign country during the calendar year for which the estimate under paragraph (1)(C) is made.
Inclusion of certain discriminatory laws, policies, and practices of the Russian Federation

For calender 4

 So in original. Probably should be “calendar”.
year 2012 and each succeeding calendar year, the Trade Representative shall include in the analyses and estimates under paragraph (1) an identification and analysis of any laws, policies, or practices of the Russian Federation that deny fair and equitable market access to United States digital trade.

Annual revisions and updates

The Trade Representative shall annually revise and update the analysis and estimate under paragraph (1).

In general

On or before April 30, 1989, and on or before March 31 of each succeeding calendar year, the Trade Representative shall submit a report on the analysis and estimates made under subsection (a) for the calendar year preceding such calendar year (which shall be known as the “National Trade Estimate”) to the President, the Committee on Finance of the Senate, and appropriate committees of the House of Representatives.

Reports to include information with respect to action being taken
The Trade Representative shall include in each report submitted under paragraph (1) information with respect to any action taken (or the reasons for no action taken) to eliminate any act, policy, or practice identified under subsection (a), including, but not limited to—
any action under section 2411 of this title,
negotiations or consultations with foreign governments, or
a section on foreign anticompetitive practices, the toleration of which by foreign governments is adversely affecting exports of United States goods or services.
Consultation with Congress on trade policy priorities

The Trade Representative shall keep the committees described in paragraph (1) currently informed with respect to trade policy priorities for the purposes of expanding market opportunities. After the submission of the report required by paragraph (1), the Trade Representative shall also consult periodically with, and take into account the views of, the committees described in that paragraph regarding means to address the foreign trade barriers identified in the report, including the possible initiation of investigations under section 2412 of this title or other trade actions.

Assistance of other agencies
Furnishing of information

The head of each department or agency of the executive branch of the Government, including any independent agency, is authorized and directed to furnish to the Trade Representative or to the appropriate agency, upon request, such data, reports, and other information as is necessary for the Trade Representative to carry out his functions under this section. In preparing the section of the report required by subsection (b)(2)(C), the Trade Representative shall consult in particular with the Attorney General.

Restrictions on release or use of information

Nothing in this subsection shall authorize the release of information to, or the use of information by, the Trade Representative in a manner inconsistent with law or any procedure established pursuant thereto.

Personnel and services

The head of any department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States may detail such personnel and may furnish such services, with or without reimbursement, as the Trade Representative may request to assist in carrying out his functions.

Electronic commerce

For purposes of this section, the term “electronic commerce” has the meaning given that term in section 1104(3) 5

 So in original. See References in Text note below.
of the Internet Tax Freedom Act.

(Pub. L. 93–618, title I, § 181, as added Pub. L. 98–573, title III, § 303(a), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3001; amended Pub. L. 100–418, title I, § 1304, Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1181; Pub. L. 103–465, title III, §§ 311(a), 312, Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 4938; Pub. L. 105–277, div. C, title XII, § 1202, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–726; Pub. L. 112–208, title II, § 203, Dec. 14, 2012, 126 Stat. 1501.)
cite as: 19 USC 2241